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Szabolcs Lajos Molnár, Péter Hidas, György Kocsis, Gábor Rögler, Péter Balogh, Miklós Farkasházi, and Péter Lang

Background:

Upper extremity injuries are common in wrestling, most of which do not require surgery.

Methods:

We retrospectively documented the case histories of six elite wrestlers who sustained elbow injuries that required surgical treatment, three of which involved reinjury and another surgical procedure.

Results:

All but one of the six initial injuries were associated with a defensive maneuver. Reinjury was more common for freestyle wrestling than for Greco-Roman style. The average time between the initial elbow injury and surgical intervention was 22 months. One-half of the wrestlers with elbow injuries that required surgery were reinjured and underwent revision surgery.

Conclusions:

All of the elite wrestlers waited for a long period of time before receiving surgery for the initial injury, and the reinjury rate was high.

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Lenka Humenikova Shriver, Nancy Mulhollen Betts, and Mark Edward Payton

Background:

Many wrestlers engage in chronic dieting and rapid “weight cutting” throughout the year to compete in a category below their natural weight. Such weightmanagement practices have a negative influence on their health and nutritional status, so the National Wrestling Coaches Association implemented a new weight-management program for high school wrestlers in 2006.

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to determine whether seasonal changes in weight, body fat, and eating attitudes occur among high school wrestlers after the implementation of the new weight-management rule.

Methods:

Fifteen high school wrestlers participated in the study. Their weight, body composition, and eating attitudes were measured preseason, in-season, and off-season. Body fat was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Attitudes toward dieting, food, and body weight were assessed using the Eating Attitude Test (EAT).

Results:

No significant changes in body fat were detected from preseason to off-season. Weight increased from preseason to in-season (p < .05) and off-season (p < .05). Although the EAT score did not change significantly from preseason to offseason, 60% reported “thinking about burning up calories when exercising” during preseason, and only 40% felt that way during the season (p < .05) and 47% during off-season (p < .05).

Conclusions:

The wrestlers experienced a significant weight gain from preseason to off-season with no significant changes in body fat. Their eating attitudes did not change significantly from preseason to off-season in this study, but further research using a large sample of high school wrestlers is warranted to confirm these findings.

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Naoki Kikuchi, Dai Ueda, Seok-ki Min, Koichi Nakazato, and Shoji Igawa

Purpose:

To examine the relationship between ACTN3 polymorphisms and level of athletic performance in Japanese wrestlers.

Methods:

The control group consisted of 243 healthy Japanese individuals. The authors divided 135 wrestlers into 3 groups based on their results in national or international competitions. They classified as elite 24 wrestlers who had placed in the top 8 in a world championship or participated in Olympic games, 28 wrestlers who had participated in world championships or become champions in Japan’s national championships were classified as subelite, and 83 wrestlers were classified as national (N-W, ie, national-level wrestler). In addition, the authors combined the elite and subelite to form the classification international-level wrestlers (I-W).

Results:

The frequency of the null X allele and the XX genotype were significantly lower in the I-W group than in the control group. However, there was no significant difference in ACTN3 genotype or allele frequency between the N-W and control groups. The frequency of the ACTN3 XX genotype in the elite groups was lower than that of all groups, and a linear tendency was observed between ACTN3 XX genotype and athletic status.

Conclusions:

In conclusion, the data indicated that ACTN3 polymorphisms were related to athletic performance in Japanese wrestlers.

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Hendrik Snyders

Encounters of the Wrestling Kind—South Africa–United States and the State of History The formal relations between South Africa and the United States within the sporting arena are an under-researched subject on both sides of the Atlantic. 1 This limited research is ironic if one considers the long

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Reid Reale, Gary Slater, and Louise M. Burke

All Olympic combat sports (currently, judo, taekwondo, boxing, and wrestling) separate athletes by body mass (BM) into “weight” divisions to minimize size/strength disparities. To ensure athletes meet weight requirements, official weigh-ins are held before competition. In addition to reducing body

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James Geiselman, Rachel Gillespie, and Andrew Miller

Collegiate wrestling continues to grow in popularity and the physical demands of wrestling increases stress on the body, resulting in a high incidence rate of musculoskeletal injuries. 1 , 2 Epidemiological studies indicate that severe injuries account for 14.2% of all injuries in men’s wrestling

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Nicholas P. Davidson, James Du, and Michael D. Giardina

their pertaining sports have halted to a sudden stop, American professional wrestling leaders World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) and All Elite Wrestling (AEW) continue to air new weekly in-ring programming. The maintenance of professional wrestling during the COVID-19 crisis has presented a unique

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Carlos García-Martí and Raúl Sánchez-García

The main aim of this article is to analyze how the intermingling of nation, race, class, and gender played out in Spain around the wrestling and jujutsu phenomenon in the early twentieth century, focusing specifically on the national and social stereotypes used by the press, the organizers, and the

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Emily C. Borden, William J. Kraemer, Bryant J. Walrod, Emily M. Post, Lydia K. Caldwell, Matthew K. Beeler, William H. DuPont, John Paul Anders, Emily R. Martini, Jeff S. Volek, and Carl M. Maresh

For over 20 years, there have been concerns about the potential negative physiological effects of repeated body-mass losses over a wrestling season to “make weight” through a variety of methods including starvation, fluid restriction, and exercise. 1 – 3 In 1998, a study by Yankanich et al 1 was

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Heidi L. Keller, Stephen E. Tolly, and Patty S. Freedson

The sport of wrestling often encourages participants to engage in extreme weight loss practices in order to compete in a weight class one to three weight categories below normal weight. This review discusses the prevalence of the problem, methods wrestlers use to accomplish weight loss, and the health and performance consequences of rapid weight loss, with particular emphasis on weight cycling and minimal safe wrestling weight assessment. Some useful and practical recommendations for minimizing extreme weight loss practices are presented. Several state wrestling associations have adjusted their rules and regulations based on recommendations by organizations such as the American College of Sports Medicine to reduce the prevalence of the problem. Nevertheless, extreme weight loss continues to be a concern among health professionals, particularly with regard to health and performance.