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Andrea Stracciolini, Caitlin M. McCracken, William P. Meehan III, and Matthew D. Milewski

Much attention in the literature has been given to the associated morbidity and health-related quality of life outcome measures surrounding sports-related injury and musculoskeletal health in young athletes ( DiFiori et al., 2014 ; Friery & Bishop, 2007 ; Iadevaia et al., 2015 ; Marchi et

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Trisha Patel and Neeru Jayanthi

; Jayanthi et al., 2013 ). Estimates currently attribute 45.9% to 54% of injuries sustained in youth sports are described as overuse ( DiFiori et al., 2014 ). Overall, the increased risk for overuse injury is most evident in one study of nearly 1200 young athletes who have a higher degree of specialization

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Janice L. Thompson

Very little is known about the energy needs of young athletes. Recent studies using the doubly labeled water method have shown that the recommended dietary allowances for energy may be too high for normally active children and adolescents living in affluent societies. No studies of energy balance in young athletes have been published. Self-report dietary records of young athletes indicate that energy, carbohydrate, and select micronutrient intakes of certain athletic groups and individual athletes may be marginal or inadequate. Potential consequences of inadequate energy and nutrient intakes in young athletes include poor bone health, fatigue, limited recovery from injuries, menstrual dysfunction in female athletes, and poor performance. Studies of energy balance and nutrient status in young athletes are needed to better understand the nutritional needs of this group.

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Chris G. Harwood and Sam N. Thrower

-standing tendency to focus research efforts on studying elite, adult, or intercollegiate athletes ( Tremayne & Newbery, 2005 ), Vealey suggested that young athletes are More ripe for PST intervention than older athletes who have already internalized dysfunctional responses to competition. Thus, PST with younger

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Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones

widespread belief that achieving international success at the senior level requires starting intensive training before puberty ( Maffulli & Helms, 1988 ). Of course, the negative side to this philosophy is the issue of burnout during the pubertal years, where young athletes may retire prematurely from sport

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Julie Minikel-Lacocque

young athletes become increasingly dedicated to their sport, and as the level of play intensifies, co-ed teams are no longer an option—there are only boys and girls teams to choose from. Many scholars of sport argue for the abolishment the gender binary system in sport, and offer a variety of inclusive

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Harry L. Hom Jr., Joan L. Duda, and Arden Miller

Two major ways of judging one’s competence and defining subjective success in achievement situations are task (focus is on improvement) and ego (focus is on beating others) involvement (16). Specific to the athletic context, this study examined the relationship of young athletes’ proneness to task and ego involvement, or individual differences in the degree of task and ego orientation, respectively, to their (a) beliefs about the causes of success, (b) perceived ability, and (c) degree of satisfaction/enjoyment in the athletic domain. Subjects were 55 young athletes recruited from summer basketball camps. Congruent with previous research on older athletes and the classroom, a conceptually consistent relationship between goal orientations and views concerning the causes of success was revealed. Young athletes who were high in task and ego orientation tended to perceive themselves as more capable and report greater satisfaction/enjoyment. Implications concerning the motivational consequences of goal orientations for children and youth are discussed.

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Lisa Chu and Brian W. Timmons

Nutritional considerations for the overweight young athlete have not been thoroughly discussed in the scientific literature. With the high prevalence of childhood obesity, more children participating in sports are overweight or obese. This is particularly true for select sports, such as American football, where large size provides an added advantage. While sport participation should be encouraged because of the many benefits of physical activity, appropriate nutritional practices are vital for growth, and optimizing performance and health. The overweight young athlete may face certain challenges because of variable energy costs and nutrient requirements for growth and routine training, compared with nonoverweight athletes. Special attention should be given to adopting healthy lifestyle choices to prevent adverse health effects due to increased adiposity. In this review, we aim to discuss special nutritional considerations and highlight gaps in the literature concerning nutrition for overweight young athletes compared with their nonoverweight peers.

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Kari Stefansen, Gerd Marie Solstad, Åse Strandbu, and Maria Hansen

In this paper, we explore coach-athlete sexual relationships (CASRs) from the perspective of young athletes, with the aim of adding to the evolving research on CASRs as a contested social phenomenon. Our starting point is what we see as two conflicting images of such relationships in contemporary

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Paddy C. Favazza, Gary N. Siperstein, Susan A. Zeisel, Samuel L. Odom, John H. Sideris, and Andrew L. Moskowitz

This study examined the effectiveness of the Young Athletes program to promote motor development in preschool-aged children with disabilities. In the study, 233 children were randomly assigned to a control group or the Young Athletes (YA) intervention group which consisted of 24 motor skill lessons delivered 3 times per week for 8 weeks. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) showed that children who participated in the YA intervention exhibited mean gains of 7–9 months on the Peabody Developmental Motor Subscales (PDMS) compared with mean gains of 3–5 months for the control group. Children in the YA intervention also exhibited significant gains on the gross motor subscale of the Vineland Teacher Rating Form (VTRF). Teachers and parents reported benefits for children not only in specific motor skills, but also kindergarten readiness skills and social/play skills. The necessity for direct and intentional instruction of motor skills, as well as the challenges of involving families in the YA program, are discussed.