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Safety and Relational Continuity in Sport for Development With Marginalized Young People

Katherine Raw, Emma Sherry, Katie Rowe, and Shelley Turner

, employment, and community leadership ( Haudenhuyse et al., 2012 ). It is because of this potential that SFD has often been used to engage marginalized young people in programming that targets a range of issues, including education, leadership, employment, and healthy lifestyles ( Schulenkorf et al., 2016

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Yes We Can! A Phenomenological Study of a Sports Camp for Young People With Cerebral Palsy

Kenneth Aggerholm and Kristian Møller Moltke Martiny

these recent developments in the field. We present a study of a winter sports camp for young people with cerebral palsy (CP). CP is defined as a group of disorders affecting the development of postural and motor control and occurring as a result of a nonprogressive lesion in the developing central

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Acute Exercise and Postprandial Lipemia in Young People

Keith Tolfrey, Alice Emily Thackray, and Laura Ann Barrett

Exaggerated postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations (TAG) independently predict future cardiovascular events. Acute exercise and diet interventions attenuate postprandial TAG in adults. This paper aims to examine the exercise postprandial lipemia studies published to date in young people. Nine studies satisfied the inclusion criteria adopted for this summary. The majority of studies are in boys (22% girls) and have shown a single ~60-min session of moderate-intensity exercise, performed 12-18 hours before a standardized meal, reduces postprandial TAG. Manipulations of exercise duration and intensity suggest an exercise energy expenditure dose-dependent response is not supported directly in healthy young people. Studies investigating alternative exercise bouts have reported lower postprandial TAG after simulated intermittent games activity, high-intensity interval running and cumulative 10-min blocks over several hours, which may appeal to the spontaneous physical activity habits of young people. Although extension of these initial findings is warranted, exercise may be an effective strategy to promote regular benefits in TAG metabolism in children and adolescents; this may contribute to an improved cardiovascular disease risk profile early in life.

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A Preliminary Study of Physical Fitness in 8- to 10-Year-Old Primary School Children From North East England in Comparison With National and International Data

Kathryn L. Weston, Nicoleta Pasecinic, and Laura Basterfield

in young people ( 5 ). As VO 2 peak is highly correlated with body mass, this is typically controlled for by dividing peak VO 2 (mL/min) by body mass in kg and expressing it as a ratio of mL/kg/min ( 4 ). Higher levels of aerobic fitness are associated with reduced risk of future metabolic and

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The Lifestyles of Affluent Young People Ages 9 to 15 Years: A Case Study

Mike Sleap, Barbara Elliott, Martha Paisi, and Helen Reed

Background:

There are concerns about the future health of young people due to inactive lifestyles. However, evidence about their physical activity levels is not extensive, especially with regard to affluent young people. This study aimed to investigate whether young people from affluent backgrounds met public health recommendations for physical activity.

Methods:

Diary accounts of lifestyle activity were collected from 219 students ages 9 to 15 y attending a fee-paying school in England.

Results:

Pupils spent an average of 121 min per day participating in physical activities of at least moderate intensity, considerably more than public health recommendations of 60 min per day. However, almost a quarter of these young people engaged in less than 60 min of physical activity per day of at least moderate intensity.

Conclusions:

The picture to emerge was one of a balance between sedentary pursuits like television and homework and physical activities such as sport and active play.

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Development and Cross-Validation of a Prediction Equation for Estimating Percentage Body Fat From Body Mass Index in Young People With Intellectual Disability

Fabio Bertapelli, Stamatis Agiovlasitis, Robert W. Motl, Roberto A. Soares, Marcos M. de Barros-Filho, Wilson D. do Amaral-Junior, and Gil Guerra-Junior

with DS ( Temple, Walkley, & Greenway, 2010 ). Collectively, these findings raise the need for developing an equation for predicting %BF from BMI and simple demographic variables specifically for persons with ID. Once an equation for predicting %BF in young people with ID is developed, inferences on

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Young People’s Motivational Profiles in Physical Activity: A Cluster Analysis

C.K. John Wang and Stuart J.H. Biddle

A great deal has been written about the motivation of young people in physical activity, and the determinants of activity for this age group have been identified as a research priority. Despite this, there are few large-scale studies identifying “types” or “clusters” of young people based on their scores on validated motivation inventories. This study reports the results of a cluster analysis of a large national sample (n = 2,510) of 12- to 15-year-olds using contemporary approaches to physical activity motivation: achievement goal orientations, self-determination theory (including amotivation), the nature of athletic ability beliefs, and perceived competence. Five meaningful clusters were identified reflecting two highly motivated and two less well-motivated clusters, as well as a clearly amotivated cluster. Groupings were validated by investigating differences in physical activity participation and perceptions of physical self-worth. Some clusters reflected age and gender differences. The results provide valuable information for likely strategies to promote physical activity in young people.

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Health Enhancing Physical Activity for Young People: Statement of the United Kingdom Expert Consensus Conference

Nick Cavill, Stuart Biddle, and James F. Sallis

An expert consensus development process was initiated to make public health recommendations regarding young people (5–18 years) and physical activity. Eight commissioned review papers were discussed at a meeting of over 50 academics and experts from a range of disciplines from the UK and overseas. Participants agreed on a consensus statement that summarized the research evidence and made two core recommendations. First, to optimize current and future health, all young people should participate in physical activity of at least moderate intensity for 1 hour per day. Young people who currently do little activity should participate in physical activity of at least moderate intensity for at least half an hour per day. The subsidiary recommendation is that, at least twice a week, some of these activities should help to enhance and maintain muscular strength and flexibility and bone health. A second aspect of the consensus process, which was based on extensive consultation, outlined the practical ways in which key organizations can work together to implement these recommendations. The resultant consensus statement provides a strong basis for the planning of future policies and programs to enhance young people’s participation in health-enhancing physical activity

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Realizing the Promise to Young People: Kinesiology and New Institutional Designs for School and Community Programs

Hal A. Lawson

As new designs are advanced for industrial age schools and universities, including cradle-to-career systems that connect them, needs and opportunities grow for kinesiology, school physical education programs, and community exercise and sport programs for young people to be redesigned in accordance with 21st century realities. While augmenting its technical problem solving capacities, kinesiology must wrestle with two new problem types. They compel new designs for kinesiology, including new relations among the subdisciplines, outcomes-focused interdisciplinary work, and expanded knowledge systems. This work entails different speci-fcations for school and community programs, and it also necessitates policy and systems changes. Design-oriented language, knowledge frameworks, and planning templates are needed, and so is intervention science. Disciplinary stewards, guided by Francis Bacon's ideals for science, can help realize America's promise to young people by developing synchronized designs for university, school, and community programs, leading to improved outcomes.

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Paralympic Legacy: Exploring the Impact of the Games on the Perceptions of Young People With Disabilities

Janine Coates and Philip B. Vickerman

The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games aimed to deliver a legacy to citizens of the United Kingdom, which included inspiring a generation of young people to participate in sport. This study aimed to understand the legacy of the Paralympic Games for children with disabilities. Eight adolescents (11–16 yr) with physical disabilities were interviewed about their perceptions of the Paralympic Games. Thematic analysis found 3 key themes that further our understanding of the Paralympic legacy. These were Paralympians as role models, changing perceptions of disability, and the motivating nature of the Paralympics. Findings demonstrate that the Games were inspirational for children with disabilities, improving their self-perceptions. This is discussed in relation to previous literature, and core recommendations are made.