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Lea-Cathrin Dohme, David Piggott, Susan Backhouse and Gareth Morgan

athletes (e.g.,  MacNamara, Button, & Collins, 2010a ). Despite similarities between the PSCs facilitative of youth athletes’ development and elite athletic performance to be expected, it is important to distinguish the psychological needs of adult and youth athlete populations. Particularly, experts have

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Brandonn S. Harris and Jack C. Watson II

Recent research has used self-determination theory to examine athlete burnout among adults. However, there is a dearth of theory-driven research investigating burnout among young athletes, particularly as it pertains to its sociological influences. With research suggesting that motives for sport (dis)continuation vary among athletes of different ages, this study assessed the utility of self-determination theory (SDT) and Coakley’s model for youth burnout while examining developmental differences. Participants included swimmers of ages 7–17. Analyses revealed a model that approached adequate ft indices and accounted for 70% of the burnout variance. Results supported utilizing these theories to understand youth burnout while accounting for developmental differences.

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Thomas Sawczuk, Ben Jones, Sean Scantlebury and Kevin Till

and CMJ, PRS, and DWB in a youth athlete cohort. In addition to training load, sleep has previously shown relationships with changes in mood, and injury and illness risk, as well as being implicated with the overtraining syndrome ( 3 , 25 , 26 , 30 ). Previous studies have eschewed the use of self

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Katherine A. Tamminen, Kaleigh Ferdinand Pennock and Courtney Braun

than nonathletes ( Lam, Valier, Bay, & McLeod, 2013 ; Snyder et al., 2010 ). However, sport can also be stressful, particularly at the elite or competitive level. Competitive youth athletes frequently report stressors associated with their sport participation, including coaches overemphasizing winning

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Zachary M. Gillen, Lacey E. Jahn, Marni E. Shoemaker, Brianna D. McKay, Alegra I. Mendez, Nicholas A. Bohannon and Joel T. Cramer

greater concentric jump performance. 7 , 8 , 16 Although the DJ seems to improve power output in adults, using DJs of various heights have shown either equivocal or decreased jump performance in children and adolescents. 1 , 2 , 17 – 19 As youth athletes often do not have fully developed skeletal

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Amanda J. Visek, Heather Mannix, Avinash Chandran, Sean D. Cleary, Karen A. McDonnell and Loretta DiPietro

Fun is the primary determinant of youth athletes’ continued sport participation ( Gardner, Magee, & Vella, 2016 ; Petlichkoff, 1992 ; Scanlan, Carpenter, Schmidt, Simmons, & Keeler, 1993 ; Scanlan & Simmons, 1992 ; Tuffey, Medbery & Gould, 2006 ; Yungblut, Schinke, & McGannon, 2012 ); thus

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Stein G.P. Menting, Marco J. Konings, Marije T. Elferink-Gemser and Florentina J. Hettinga

18 and cognitive changes 19 , 20 that athletes experience during adolescence, can be expected to have an effect on the development of pacing behavior of youth athletes. 13 To achieve a better understanding of the goal-directed decision-making process involved in pacing, the development process of

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Azahara Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, Ariadna Benet, Sergi Mirada, Alicia M. Montalvo and Gregory D. Myer

impairments in their lower-extremity landing technique. 22 , 23 , 25 – 27 An awareness of neuromuscular deficits associated with maturation in children may enhance specific recommendations for injury prevention and performance-enhancement programs in youth athletes. 19 , 23 Moreover, knowledge of sex

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Jeffrey J. Martin, Hermann J. Engels, John C. Wirth and Kari L. Smith

The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of social physique anxiety (SPA). SPA, self-esteem, body-esteem, public body consciousness (PBC) and percent body fat (%BF) were assessed with elite female youth athletes (̲N=68) competing in either figure skating, soccer or gymnastics. Stepwise multiple regression analyses, controlling for BF%, accounted for 59% of the variance in SPA. Self-esteem entered first, after BF%, followed by body-esteem and PBC. The psychological variables accounted for 57% of the variance with self-esteem contributing the most (R square change = 45%). Contrary to previous research, BF% did not significantly contribute to SPA. Additionally, a MANOVA and follow-up ANOVA and Scheffe’s tests revealed significant sport differences among SPA, self-esteem, and body-esteem.

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Kirsten Legerlotz, Robert Marzilger, Sebastian Bohm and Adamantios Arampatzis


To understand the mechanisms for the effects of resistance training on functional parameters, and to assess the injury risk of the involved tissues, it is necessary to examine the underlying morphological and structural changes of the respective tissues.


The presented information on physiological adaptations have been deduced from cross-sectional studies comparing youth athletes with controls and children with adults as well as from longitudinal studies examining the effects of resistance training in untrained children and adolescents and in youth athletes.


The evidence indicates, that training induced changes in motor performance rely partly on enhanced neuromuscular control, and partly on morphological adaptation of muscles and tendons, such as changes in muscle, muscle fiber and tendon cross-sectional area, muscle composition, and tendon material properties, with the bone also adapting by increasing bone mineral content and cortical area.


Although the training induced adaptations of the investigated tissues follows similar principles in children as in adults, the magnitude of the adaptive response appears to be more subtle. As studies investigating physiological adaptation in youth athletes are sparse, more research in this area is warranted to elucidate the specific physiological stimulus-response relationship necessary for effective training programs and injury prevention.