This study examined the ecology of “free gym” as it occurred in both school lunch hour and after-school community settings. In an effort to understand how urban youth experience sport, an ethnography using multiple methods was conducted to ascertain how urban youth shape their own cultures according to the social forces operating within the gymnasium. A period of sustained observation revealed a student-imposed hierarchy that was dominated by skilled male African American basketball players. Status was gained through what occurred within the free-gym ecology. Students often had to learn the system by “serving time” before they could join a desired level of the hierarchy. While a few students thrived in this environment, most merely survived or were marginalized. Such a setting has implications for how physical education and school culture is subjected to wider societal influences. The presence of socially chronic situations such as free gym require a pedagogy that is more democratic and more enriching, thereby moving from the real toward the ideal.
Clive C. Pope and Mary O’Sullivan
Brian Wilson and Robert Sparks
This paper examines the impacts of athletic-apparel commercial messages on youth and youth cultures. Sneaker companies routinely use celebrity Black athletes, like Michael Jordan, to help position and market their premium brands. While concerns have been raised over the potential negative impacts of this practice, the processes through which athletic-apparel commercials become interpreted and assimilated into youth cultures have not been well-researched, A study is reported that used focus-group methodology and Radway’s (1991) concept of “interpretive communities” to examine how Black and non-Black male adolescents view sneaker commercials and celebrity Black athletes. This paper explores the ways that “cultural power” and “symbolic power” (Lull, 1995) are exercised by both the sneaker companies that feature celebrity Black athlete spokespersons and by the youth “communities” that consume these images. Overall, the youth in the study comprised two distinct interpretive communities defined by cultural differences related to their distinct social locations and racial identities.
In this project I will trace former Little League Baseball star, Danny Almonte’s, celebrity identity and flexible citizenship with particular regard to the way that he has been used as both an exemplary Dominican immigrant and later a cautionary tale. As such this critical biography of Almonte’s rise and fall in American popular culture—informed by Henry Giroux’s extensive theorizing on youth culture, Ong’s concept of flexible citizenship, and Steven Jackson’s understanding of “twisting”—will critically interrogate the mediated discourses used to describe, define, and make Almonte into a symbol of a (stereo)typical Dominican male. In accordance with contemporaneous hyper-conservative and neoliberal rhetoric pervasive throughout the United States, I posit the notion that Almonte’s contested celebrity was formulated within the popular media as the embodiment of the minority “assault” on white privilege.
Eva D’Hondt, Fotini Venetsanou, Antonis Kambas and Matthieu Lenoir
(s) or legal caretaker(s) as well as the schools involved for their contribution to this study. Data collection was partly supported by the Flemish Government, Department of Youth, Culture, Sports and Media awarded to Renaat Philippaerts and Matthieu Lenoir. Apart from the reported funding, the authors
Thomas P. Oates
basketball arena as part of a multi-billion dollar commercial development in downtown Brooklyn. “Can’t Knock the Hustle”: Ghettocentrism in U.S. Popular Culture In the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, adaptations of Black cultural forms flooded the commercial culture. Youth cultures, nurtured
but also other arts, crafts, music, and youth culture-based activities. More specifically, YE models also call upon the role of the practitioner to be taken into account as an area of focus. As an example of how this can work in applied studies, Gambone, Yu, Lewis-Charp, Sipe, and Lacoe’s ( 2006
Travis R. Bell and Victor D. Kidd
—spanned the globe with a desire to understand how rap music influenced other nations and subsequent youth culture ( Söderman & Sernhede, 2016 ; Tomaszewicz, 2017 ). Thus, rap was no longer the property of a monolithic community but an evolution across different cultures with varied interpretations ( Riley
Jamie Cleland, Stacey Pope and John Williams
participation and gender identity . In P. Bramham & J. Caudwell (Eds.), Sport, active leisure and youth cultures (pp. 75 – 96 ). Eastbourne, UK : Leisure Studies Association . Jones , K. ( 2008 ). Female fandom: Identity, sexism, and men’s professional football in England . Sociology of Sport
on twenty-first-century Sweden (pp. 9 – 37 ). Frankfurt, Germany : Peter Lang . Seippel , Ø. ( 2006 ). Sport and social capital . Acta Sociologica, 49 ( 2 ), 169 – 183 . doi:10.1177/0001699306064771 10.1177/0001699306064771 Sernhede , O. ( 2011 ). School, youth culture and territorial
Mary G. McDonald
. Pavlidis , A. , & Fullagar , S. ( 2014 ). Women, sport and new media technologies: Derby grrls online . In A. Bennett & B. Robards (Eds.), Mediated youth cultures: The internet, belonging and new cultural configurations (pp. 164 – 181 ). London, UK : Palgrave MacMillan . Pringle , R