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Alon Eliakim, Bareket Falk, Neil Armstrong, Fátima Baptista, David G. Behm, Nitzan Dror, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Kathleen F. Janz, Jaak Jürimäe, Amanda L. McGowan, Dan Nemet, Paolo T. Pianosi, Matthew B. Pontifex, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Thomas Rowland and Alex V. Rowlands

This commentary highlights 23 noteworthy publications from 2018, selected by leading scientists in pediatric exercise science. These publications have been deemed as significant or exciting in the field as they (a) reveal a new mechanism, (b) highlight a new measurement tool, (c) discuss a new concept or interpretation/application of an existing concept, or (d) describe a new therapeutic approach or clinical tool in youth. In some cases, findings in adults are highlighted, as they may have important implications in youth. The selected publications span the field of pediatric exercise science, specifically focusing on: aerobic exercise and training; neuromuscular physiology, exercise, and training; endocrinology and exercise; resistance training; physical activity and bone strength; growth, maturation, and exercise; physical activity and cognition; childhood obesity, physical activity, and exercise; pulmonary physiology or diseases, exercise, and training; immunology and exercise; cardiovascular physiology and disease; and physical activity, inactivity, and health.

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Geraldine Naughton, David Greene, Daniel Courteix and Adam Baxter-Jones

reminder of how sensitive bone regulation can be and how early improvements can be instigated ( 14 ). Beyond a consensus on the need for weight-bearing exercise in children and youth, exercise prescription for optimal bone development is imprecise. However, the leading original research article in this

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Kyle S. Beyer, Jeffrey R. Stout, Michael J. Redd, Kayla M. Baker, Haley C. Bergstrom, Jay R. Hoffman and David H. Fukuda

Presently, youth exercise prescription and sports stratification are based on chronological age; however, there may be marked differences in the biological maturity of youth athletes of the same chronological age ( 5 , 22 , 26 , 35 ). The disparity between chronological and biological age may

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Sarah E. Roth, Monique Gill, Alec M. Chan-Golston, Lindsay N. Rice, Catherine M. Crespi, Deborah Koniak-Griffin and Michael L. Prelip

dichotomized to indicate meeting national PA recommendations for middle school-aged youth: exercising 60 minutes or more daily (daily PA) and completing muscle-strengthening exercises at least 3 days per week (muscle-strengthening PA). 18 Predisposing factors included PE enjoyment and PA attitudes. PE

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Julie Masurier, Marie-Eve Mathieu, Stephanie Nicole Fearnbach, Charlotte Cardenoux, Valérie Julian, Céline Lambert, Bruno Pereira, Martine Duclos, Yves Boirie and David Thivel

: Implications for a lifetime health . In D. Lamb & C.V. Gisolfi (Eds.), Perspectives in exercise science and sports medicine: Youth exercise and sport (Vol.  2 , pp.  401 – 430 ). Indianapolis, IN : Benchmark Press . Blundell , J.E. , Gibbons , C. , Caudwell , P. , Finlayson , G. , & Hopkins