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Kurtis Pankow, Amber D. Mosewich and Nicholas L. Holt

qualities ( Day, Fleenor, Atwater, Sturm, & McKee, 2014 ). In the current study, we examined model youth football coaches’ perceptions of their leadership styles and factors that contributed to the development of these leadership styles, in order generate more knowledge about leadership in youth sport

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Srinidhi Bellamkonda, Samantha J. Woodward, Eamon Campolettano, Ryan Gellner, Mireille E. Kelley, Derek A. Jones, Amaris Genemaras, Jonathan G. Beckwith, Richard M. Greenwald, Arthur C. Maerlender, Steven Rowson, Stefan M. Duma, Jillian E. Urban, Joel D. Stitzel and Joseph J. Crisco

American Youth Football league, and players from program C (n = 26) participated in the Pop-Warner league. Data collection was conducted throughout 2 seasons (2015 and 2016) during practices (n = 345) and games (n = 137). Players wore either Riddell Revolution or Speed football helmets that were

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Marty K. Baker, Jeffrey A. Graham, Allison Smith and Zachary T. Smith

, Republic of Ireland, Scotland, United States, and Wales. National sport organization recommendations often influence the skill development and training practice trends in youth sport. This is certainly the case with youth football (i.e., soccer in North America). National governing bodies, such as USA

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Tracy C. Donachie, Andrew P. Hill and Daniel J. Madigan

-person levels. Method Participants and Procedure A sample of 352 youth footballers was recruited from football academies, national squads, and clubs across Scotland and England. The mean age was 14.03 ( SD  = 2.30, range 9–19 years old) and the average length of sport participation was 8.34 ( SD  = 2

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Callum G. Brownstein, Derek Ball, Dominic Micklewright and Neil V. Gibson

adults could successfully maintain sprint performance when self-selecting recovery intervals ( 16 , 24 ). In youth populations, however, a recent study found that performance was compromised compared with standardized recovery intervals in elite youth footballers during a repeated-sprint task using self

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Sharna A. Naidu, Maurizio Fanchini, Adam Cox, Joshua Smeaton, Will G. Hopkins and Fabio R. Serpiello

of our knowledge, no previous study has validated the CR100 scale in youth football. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the convergent validity of the CR100 scale to assess the internal TL in youth football players, the differences in individual player intercepts and slopes, and the

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Eamon T. Campolettano, Gunnar Brolinson and Steven Rowson

protocol at the beginning and end of a season of football within a cohort of 34 youth football players (average age of 9.9 ± 0.6 y) and relate temporal changes in performance to head impact exposure. Evaluation of these protocols in the youth population should be conducted prior to their implementation and

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Maria Kavussanu and Christopher M. Spray

This study examined the network of relationships among moral atmosphere, perceived performance motivational climate, and moral functioning of male youth football players. Participants were 325 footballers recruited from 24 teams of a youth football league. They responded to scenarios describing cheating and aggressive behaviors likely to occur during a football game by indicating their moral judgment, intention, and behavior, which represented moral functioning. The moral atmosphere of the team and participants’ perceptions of the team’s performance motivational climate were also measured. Structural equation modeling indicated that perceptions of an atmosphere condoning cheating and aggressive behaviors were associated with views that a performance motivational climate is salient in the team, while both moral atmosphere and perceived performance climate corresponded to low levels of moral functioning in football. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for eliminating unsportsmanlike conduct from sport.

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Andrew Romaine, J.D. DeFreese, Kevin Guskiewicz and Johna Register-Mihalik

As head injuries in American football have received increasing publicity, the safety of the sport has become a great concern for parents nationwide. The purpose of this study was to examine perceived safety concerns in youth football using Eccles’ expectancy-value model (Eccles et al., 1983). We hypothesized perceived safety concerns to moderate relationships between parent perceptions of parent cost/benefit, child cost/benefit, and child motivation and enjoyment outcomes for football. Youth football parents (N = 105, M age = 42) completed valid and reliable online assessments of study variables. Regression analyses revealed child safety concerns (as rated by parents) to mediate, rather than moderate, the relationship between parent safety concerns and child cost perceptions (as rated by parents). Furthermore, safety concerns did not significantly associate with child achievement outcomes of motivation and enjoyment. Results provide valuable insight into parent and child attitudes toward youth football safety. Such knowledge may inform future educational interventions targeting sport safety promotion.

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Darren J. Paul, Gustavo Tomazoli and George P. Nassis

course of the PRS scale before and after a youth football match. Methods Subjects Twenty trained male youth football players across 2 teams playing for one football club and attending an 18-day international training camp participated in the present study. Of the 20 participants, 11 players participated