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Fernando Santos, Daniel Gould and Leisha Strachan

Research on positive youth development (PYD) through sport has provided valuable insight on how youth sport coaches’ may facilitate positive developmental outcomes such as leadership, respect, and teamwork ( Lacroix, Camiré, & Trudel, 2008 ; Trottier & Robitaille, 2014 ). Several descriptive and

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Chien-Yu Pan and Georgia C. Frey

Background:

Youth age, parent modeling and support, and time spent in sedentary pursuits influence physical activity (PA) in youth without disabilities, but have not been explored in youth with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Therefore, these were selected as variables of interest to examine as PA determinants in this population.

Methods:

Parents (n = 48) and youth (n = 30) wore an accelerometer for 7 d and parents completed a PA support questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the influence of selected variables on youth PA.

Results:

Youth age (r22 = -0.59, P < 0.01) and sedentary pursuits (r22 = -0.47, P < 0.05) were negatively correlated with and accounted for 30% and 13% of the variance in youth PA, respectively. Parent variables did not significantly contribute to the explained variance.

Conclusion:

Contrary to findings in youth without disabilities, parent PA and support were not predictors of PA in youth with ASD.

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Gabriel Gustavo Bergmann, Mauren Lúcia de Araújo Bergmann and Pedro C. Hallal

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and combined influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), body mass index (BMI) and percentage of fat (% fat) on total cholesterol (TC) and blood pressure (BP) in male and female youth.

Methods:

1442 (721 girls) children and adolescents aged 7–12 years were randomly selected. CRF, BMI, % fat (predictor variables), TC, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; outcome variables) were measured. Using standardized cut-off points, we created categories for each variable. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were used to test the independent influence of predictors on outcomes.

Results:

The prevalence of increased TC, SBP, and DBP were 34.4% (95% CI 31.9–37.0), 9.1% (95% CI 7.5–10.6), and 15.5% (95% CI 13.5–17.4), respectively. In multivariable analyses, CRF was a significant predictor of all outcome variables (P < .05). BMI was associated with SBP and DBP (P < .05) and % fat was associated only with SBP (P < .05). CRF had stronger associations with TC than BMI, whereas the opposite was observed for SBP and DBP.

Conclusions:

CRF and BMI are independently associated to TC and BP in male and female youth, and individuals unfit/overweight have greater likelihood of presenting these risk factors.

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Pedro Silva, Ryan Lott, Jorge Mota and Greg Welk

Social support (SS) from parents and peers are key reinforcing factors in the Youth Physical Activity Promotion (YPAP) model. This study aims to identify the relative contribution of parental and peer SS on youth participation in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Participants included 203 high school students (n = 125 girls; mean age 14.99 ± 1.55 years). MVPA was assessed by accelerometry. SS influences were evaluated using a well-established scale. Structural equation modeling measured (AMOS, Version 19) the relative fit of the YPAP models using both parental and peer SS. Parental SS had significant associations with both predisposing factors, enjoyment (β = .62, p < .01), and self-efficacy (β= .32, p < .01), as well a direct effect on MVPA (β = .30, p < .01). Peer SS had direct effect on MVPA (β = .33, p < .05), also significantly influenced levels of enjoyment (β = .47, p < .01) and self-efficacy (β = .67, p < .01). In both models self-efficacy mediated the influence on MVPA. The direct effects for parents and peers were similar. This demonstrates that both parental and peer social support exert a strong influence on adolescent MVPA.

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Inas Rashad Kelly, Mary Ann Phillips, Michelle Revels and Dawud Ujamaa

Background:

This study analyzed the effect of school practices regarding the provision of physical education (PE) on the physical fitness of children and youth.

Methods:

Using an untapped sample of approximately 5000 5th and 7th graders from 93 schools in Georgia in 2006, individual-level and merged school-level data on physical education were analyzed. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to estimate the potential influence of the school environment on measured health outcomes. Controls were included for grade, gender, race/ethnicity, urbanicity, and county of residence.

Results:

Variables measuring 8 school-level practices pertaining to physical education were found to have significant effects on cardiovascular fitness as measured by the FitnessGram, with signs in the expected direction. These variables, combined with demographic variables, explained 29.73% of the variation in the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run but only 4.53% of the variation in the body mass index.

Conclusions:

School-level variables pertaining to PE practices were collectively strong predictors of physical fitness, particularly cardiovascular fitness. Schools that adopt these policies will likely encourage favorable physical activity habits that may last into adulthood. Future research should examine the causal relationships among physical education practices, physical activity, and health outcomes.

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Eric E. Wickel

Background:

This study examined associations between sedentary time, physical activity (PA), and executive function among youth participating in the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development.

Methods:

Sedentary time and PA (light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA)) were objectively assessed at 9 and 15 years, while executive function (inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence) were assessed at 15 years. Regression models were used to examine associations.

Results:

Sedentary time at 9 years predicted fluid intelligence at 15 years (B = 0.031), whereas increased sedentary time from 9 to 15 years predicted higher inhibition (B = 0.003), working memory (B = 0.074), and fluid intelligence (B = 0.029). Relatively lower levels of working memory at 15 years were predicted from increased levels of light PA, moderate PA, and MVPA from 9 to 15 years (B = –0.075, –0.293, and –0.173, respectively). At 15 years, inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence were significantly associated with sedentary time (B = 0.003, 0.055, and 0.045, respectively).

Conclusions:

Childhood sedentary time and PA may affect executive function at 15 years; however, prospective studies are needed to examine the concurrent change in both sedentary time and PA with executive function.

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Chris Riddoch, Dawn Edwards, Angie Page, Karsten Froberg, Sigmund A. Anderssen, Niels Wedderkopp, Søren Brage, Ashley R. Cooper, Luis B. Sardinha, Maarike Harro, Lena Klasson-Heggebø, Willem van Mechelen, Colin Boreham, Ulf Ekelund, Lars Bo Andersen and The European Youth Heart Study Team

Background:

The aim of the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS) is to establish the nature, strength, and interactions between personal, environmental, and lifestyle influences on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in European children.

Methods:

The EYHS is an international study measuring CVD risk factors, and their associated influences, in children. Relationships between these independent factors and risk of disease will inform the design of CVD interventions in children. A minimum of 1000 boys and girls ages 9 and 15 y were recruited from four European countries—Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Portugal. Variables measured included physical, biochemical, lifestyle, psychosocial, and sociodemographic data.

Results:

Of the 5664 children invited to participate, 4169 (74%) accepted. Response rates for most individual tests were moderate to high. All test protocols were well received by the children.

Conclusions:

EYHS protocols are valid, reliable, acceptable to children, and feasible for use in large, field-based studies.

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Leisha Strachan, Tara-Leigh McHugh and Courtney Mason

Indigenous leaders, both at the national ( Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, 2015 ) and community levels ( Maskwachees Declaration, 2005 ), recognize the value of sport for Indigenous children and youth. Researchers in sport psychology have called for more research to understand youth

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Karin A. Pfeiffer and Michael J. Wierenga

reason is that reports indicate that a large proportion of children and adolescents play sports. Tremblay et al. ( 2016 ) noted that, worldwide, approximately half of children participate in at least one organized youth sport, but estimates vary by country. Pate et al. determined that approximately 70

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Dawn Anderson-Butcher

The potential for youth sport to promote positive youth outcomes is vast, as 50% of children and youth participate in organized sport around the world ( Hulteen et al., 2017 ). Indeed, research demonstrates the role of youth sport in promoting health and mental health outcomes, as well as in