youth sport coaches as social factors (or agents) has received particular consideration in the literature because children and adolescents are typically introduced to physical activity through either PE in school or youth sport. These social agents can foster need fulfillment by engaging in autonomy
Johannes Raabe, Katrin Schmidt, Johannes Carl, and Oliver Höner
Breanna J. Drew, Jordan T. Sutcliffe, Mark W. Bruner, Colin D. McLaren, Christian Swann, Matthew J. Schweickle, and Stewart A. Vella
mental health literacy workshop for youth sport coaches. Across both study components (i.e., quantitative and qualitative analyses), the findings highlighted a pattern whereby coaches reported increases in their awareness and knowledge of mental health issues (i.e., improved mental health literacy
Deborah L. Feltz, Teri J. Hepler, Nathan Roman, and Craig Paiement
The Coaching Efficacy Scale (CES) measures beliefs coaches have to affect the learning and performance of their athletes. While previous research has provided support for the model of coaching efficacy and the CES as an adequate measure of the construct, these studies have used paid high-school and college coaches. It is possible that the factor structure of the CES may not replicate for volunteer youth sport coaches. The purpose of this study was to explore coaching efficacy sources used by volunteer youth sport coaches. In addition, the validity of the CES was examined, using a 5-point condensed rating scale, among volunteer youth sport coaches before exploring the sources. The study involved 492 volunteer youth sport coaches from various team sports. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the CES had an acceptable fit to the data. The sources of coaching efficacy were examined via multivariate multiple regression and canonical correlation. Results indicated that more confident coaches had more extensive playing and coaching backgrounds, felt their players improved more throughout the season, and perceived more support than did less confident coaches, particularly in regard to technique and game strategy efficacy.
François Lemyre, Pierre Trudel, and Natalie Durand-Bush
Researchers have investigated how elite or expert coaches learn to coach, but very few have investigated this process with coaches at the recreational or developmental-performance levels. Thirty-six youth-sport coaches (ice hockey, soccer, and baseball) were each interviewed twice to document their learning situations. Results indicate that (a) formal programs are only one of the many opportunities to learn how to coach; (b) coaches’ prior experiences as players, assistant coaches, or instructors provide them with some sport-specific knowledge and allow them to initiate socialization within the subculture of their respective sports; (c) coaches rarely interact with rival coaches; and (d) there are differences in coaches’ learning situations between sports. Reflections on who could help coaches get the most out of their learning situations are provided.
Jay M. Albrecht and Brad N. Strand
The inception of organized youth sport in the United States began during the mid to late 1800s. With continual growth of organized youth sport throughout the twentieth century and into the twenty-first, youth sport has not been without important, and at times, serious implications. One of the implications involves injury in youth sport and the basic need for qualified youth sport coaches to care for injury situations that might arise during the course of regular season practices and games.
One hundred fifty-four youth sport coaches from seven different youth sport organizations were surveyed to determine whether the coaches had the basic first aid (FA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation/automated external defibrillation (CPR/AED) training to serve their young athletes in the event of an emergent or non-emergent injury or sudden illness. Additionally, coaches were asked whether they had the confidence to manage a basic emergency injury or illness situation should such an occurrence arise during the course of a sports season involving regular practices or game competition. Major findings of this study revealed that only 19% and 46% of the 154 youth sport coaches surveyed were formally trained with basic first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation certifications, respectively. Additional findings indicated that youth sport coaches holding one or two of the suggested certifications possessed more knowledge and confidence than those youth sport coaches who did not hold certification to use that knowledge when faced with FA injury or illness situation. In consideration of these findings, recommendations should be made to encourage or mandate youth sport coaches involved with organized youth sport to become FA and CPR/AED certified.
Alanna Harman and Alison Doherty
This study examined the psychological contract of volunteer youth sport coaches to determine the content, variation, and influences to its development. Interviews were conducted with 22 volunteer coaches of team sports, representing different levels of play (recreational, competitive), coaching tenure (novice, experienced), and gender (female, male), who were sampled to account for the potential variation based on these demographic factors. The findings revealed that volunteer coaches possessed both transactional and relational expectations of themselves and their club. Coaches’ most frequently cited expectations of themselves were technical expertise (transactional), and leadership (relational), while their most frequently cited expectations of the club were fundamental resources and club administration (transactional), and coach support (relational). Variation was found by different levels of play (recreational, competitive) and coaching tenure (novice, experienced). The coaches’ psychological contract was shaped predominately by sources external to the club. Implications for managing the psychological contract of volunteer youth sport coaches and directions for future research are discussed.
John Naslund and Garfield Pennington
A major determinant of the quality of youth’s experiences in community sports is their relationship with their coaches. It is highly desirable to investigate the practices employed by these coaches, many of whom are volunteers, as their values and coaching strategies can be encouraging for young athletes or can be demoralizing and ruin their sporting experience altogether. The unique perspectives of volunteer youth sport coaches are rarely considered, and by providing them with opportunities to openly reflect upon their practices, it may be possible to assist these coaches in improving their practices and ultimately improve the sporting experience for youth. This article describes an action research project whereby two volunteer youth sport coaches from British Columbia, Canada, engaged in a practical demonstration for using reflective dialogue in order to examine their own coaching practices. Both coaches, who are 50 years apart in age and whose coaching experience ranges from seven to over 50 years, coach different sports at different levels (elite to participation) for youth aged 11-18 years. The coach participants engaged in action research through journal writing, open discussions, and audio-recorded reflective dialogues over a period of six months. Qualitative analysis of the dialogues revealed six key themes that were significant to both coaches: motivation, confidence building, team spirit, relationship building, communication, and coaching values. The coaches comment on the effectiveness of reflective dialogue as a strategy that could help volunteer youth sport coaches better understand the importance of their roles as coaches, identify challenging aspects of their coaching, and serve as a means to further develop their coaching skills and knowledge. In addition, the coaches comment on their generational differences, and discuss the importance of having senior coaches with extensive experience mentor younger less-experienced coaches.
Jody Langdon, Brandonn S. Harris, Glenn P. Burdette III, and Sara Rothberger
Studying perceived autonomy support, a basic tenet of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), provides some understanding as to how coaches can more positively influence youth athletes to enjoy and persist in youth sport. Borrowing insights from success in physical education and coaching-oriented interventions, the purpose of this paper was to highlight positive aspects and challenges of an innovative youth sport autonomy supportive training program for coaches. Positives included the initial training session and the use of an online training component. Challenges were the structure of the season, other coaches, and possibly the age of the athletes. Future training programs in youth sport coaching should increase in duration, provide specific examples of how to implement autonomy supportive coaching behaviors, as well as address solutions to the time constraints of the youth sport setting.
Tiffanye M. Vargas-Tonsing, Margaret Flores, and Robbi Beyer
The prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is between 2%-10% of children (Center for Disease Control, 2003). Participation in organized sports is beneficial to children with ADHD by increasing self-esteem, self-efficacy, peer acceptance, and social skills (Armstrong & Drabman, 2004; Bagwell, Brooke, Pelham, and Hoza, 2001). Little research exists as to preparation for youth sport coaches with regard to coaching athletes with ADHD. The study’s purpose was to investigate coaches’ efficacy beliefs for coaching athletes with ADHD. Two hundred nineteen volunteer coaches completed a questionnaire designed to measure their beliefs. The results showed that overall coaches reported fairly high feelings of efficacy for working with athletes with ADHD. However, results also indicated that coaches reporting experience with athletes with ADHD reported higher efficacy for coaching athletes with ADHD than their less experienced peers. Implications for coaching education include the incorporation of behavior management techniques into course content and the creation of ADHD resources such as weblinks and pamphlets.
Wade D. Gilbert and Pierre Trudel
The present study examined how model youth sport coaches learn to coach through experience. Yin’s multiple-case study approach was used with six youth team sport coaches. Data were collected over an entire sport season through a series of semi-structured interviews, observations, and documents. All six case study coaches developed and refined coaching strategies through a process of reflection. Six components characterized reflection: coaching issues, role frame, issue setting, strategy generation, experimentation, and evaluation. A reflective conversation comprising the latter four components, triggered by coaching issues and bound by the coach’s role frame, was central to reflection. The selection of options at each stage in a reflective conversation was influenced by access to peers, a coach’s stage of learning, issue characteristics, and the environment. Furthermore, three types of reflection were evident: reflection-in-action, reflection-on-action, and retrospective reflection-on-action.