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Continuing Education Assessment

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Volume 29 (2024): Issue 2 (Mar 2024)

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Volume 18 (2024): Issue 1 (Mar 2024)

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Volume 33 (2024): Issue 3 (Mar 2024)

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The Palgrave Handbook of Disability Sport in Europe: Policies, Structures, and Participation

Wellington De Luna-Vazquez and Deborah Shapiro

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Translation and Adaptation of the Reinjury Anxiety Inventory, the Sport Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Scale, and the Athletic Injury Self-Efficacy Questionnaire Into Turkish

Hande Turkeri-Bozkurt, Sinan Yıldırım, Britton W. Brewer, Volga Bayrakcı Tunay, and Ziya Koruç

Context: Psychological difficulties can adversely affect rehabilitation outcomes and make return to sport more difficult. Identifying psychological difficulties is possible with valid and reliable measurement tools. The purpose of this study is to translate and culturally adapt the Reinjury Anxiety Inventory (RIAI), the Sport Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Scale (SIRAS), and the Athletic Injury Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (AISEQ) into Turkish and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Turkish versions. Design: Cross‐sectional study. Methods: The instruments were forward- and back-translated, culturally adapted, and validated on 248 athletes and 34 physical therapists. The physical therapists of the athletes completed the SIRAS to evaluate the athletes. Statistical analysis included reliability tests (Cronbach alpha and test–retest), exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and correlational analysis. Floor and ceiling effects (<15%) were also assessed. Results: Confirmatory factor analyses revealed a satisfactory model fit for the RIAI and the AISEQ, and exploratory factor analysis revealed the 1-factor structure for the SIRAS as in the original. All 3 instruments displayed adequate internal consistency (Cronbach alpha coefficients ranged from .84 to .88) and test–retest reliability (coefficients ranged from .81 to .93). Convergent validity of the instruments was supported by significant correlations between the AISEQ and both the RIAI and the SIRAS. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the Turkish versions of the instruments were valid, consistent, and reliable in athletes who have serious injuries. Scores on these instruments could be useful for evaluating the contributions of psychological factors to return to sport following serious injuries. Clinicians are encouraged to use RIAI-Turkish (RIAI-TR), SIRAS-Turkish (SIRAS-TR), and AISEQ-Turkish (AISEQ-TR) together to make decisions about the treatment and rehabilitation plans of injured athletes.

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Effect of Combined Training With Balance, Strength, and Plyometrics on Physical Performance in Male Sprint Athletes With Intellectual Disabilities

Ghada Jouira, Haithem Rebai, Dan Iulian Alexe, and Sonia Sahli

Individuals with intellectual disabilities often face unique challenges in physical capabilities, making traditional training methods less effective for their specific needs. This study aimed to investigate the effect of combining balance, plyometric, and strength (CBPS) training with sprint training on physical performance in male athletes with intellectual disabilities. Twenty-seven participants were randomly assigned to either a CBPS group or a control group that only maintained their regular sprint training. Participants underwent pre- and posttraining tests, including measures of balance, jumping, agility, and sprinting ability. The results showed that the CBPS group demonstrated significant improvements (p < .05) in one-leg stance, crossover-hop jump, squat jump, countermovement jump, and 10- and 30-m sprint at posttraining compared with pretraining. CBPS training combined with sprinting significantly improves physical performance in male athletes with intellectual disabilities, suggesting implications for tailored training programs to enhance their physical fitness and overall health.

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Impact of Prolonged Sport Stoppage on Knee Injuries in High School Athletes: An Ecological Study

Hannah Knapic, Ellen Shanley, Charles A. Thigpen, Albert Prats-Uribe, Cynthia D. Fair, and Garrett S. Bullock

Context: In March 2020, public health concerns resulted in school closure throughout the United States. The prolonged sport cessation may affect knee injury risk in high school athletes. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare risk of knee injuries in high school athletes during 2019–2020 and 2020–2021 academic years, and stratify by gender, severity, mechanism of injury, injury type, and knee anatomic region. Design: Historical–prospective cohort study. Methods: This historical–prospective cohort study included 176 schools in 6 states matched by sport participation in control and COVID years from July 1, 2019 to June 30, 2021. Injury rates per 1000 athletes per year were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. A negative binomial regression was performed to assess potential differences in knee injuries between academic years. Results: 94,847 and 72,521 high school athletes participated in the 2019–2020 (19–20) and 2020–2021 (20–21) seasons. Knee injury risk was higher in the 20–21 season (19–20: 28.89% [27.82–29.96]; 20–21: 33.82% [32.50–35.14]). Risk increased for male athletes from 2019–2020 to 2020–2021 (19–20: 29.42% [28.01–30.83]; 20–21: 40.32% [38.89–41.75]). Female knee injury risk was similar between years (19–20: 25.78% [24.29–27.27]; 20–21: 26.03% [24.31–27.75]). Knee injuries increased by a ratio of 1.2 ([95% CI, 1.1–1.3], P < .001) during 2020–2021. Conclusions: Knee injury risk and relative risk increased among males in 2020–2021. Results indicate changes in knee injury risk following return from COVID shelter in place among high school athletes and implicate potential negative downstream effects of interrupted sports training and participation on high school injury risk.

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Are Irish Athletic Therapy Students Confident in Concussion Assessment and Management? A Cross-Sectional Study of Final Year Students’ Self-Efficacy

Anna P. Postawa, Enda F. Whyte, and Siobhán O’Connor

Concussion is one of the most challenging injuries for sports medicine clinicians. It is crucial that students develop high self-efficacy for concussion-relevant skills during professional education, as it impacts the quality of their patient care. This study aimed to explore Irish final year athletic therapy students’ self-efficacy in concussion assessment and management and the factors that impact its development. Participants’ level of self-efficacy varied, from low to high, depending on the skill assessed. Lack of practice and lecturer’s positive feedback impacted student self-efficacy the most. Educators should provide students with an opportunity to practice their skills in an environment that facilitates feedback.

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Economic Analysis of Secondary School Outreach Athletic Training Services

Brian A. Czajka

The health care benefit of athletic trainers in secondary schools is well established; however, the economic effects of athletic training outreach programs on the organization providing the services are not well researched. The purpose of this study was to determine the economic effects of outreach athletic training services on the organization the outreach athletic training services. The daily number of patient visits and procedure charges were compiled and compared between a time period when outreach athletic training services were provided to local secondary schools and a time period when these services were not provided. The findings of this study showed that an organization providing outreach athletic training services may experience significant increases in daily patient visits and daily procedure charges.