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Heloisa Suzano de Almeida, Flávia Porto, Marcelo Porretti, Gabriella Lopes, Daniele Fiorot, Priscila dos Santos Bunn and Elirez Bezerra da Silva

This systematic review verified the effect of dance on postural control in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and investigated whether this practice can be as effective over a short period as when it is performed over a longer period in relation to the postural control of this population. The search was performed in April 2019 in nine databases. Only randomized/quasi-randomized controlled trials with participants with idiopathic PD were included. The meta-analysis of the 11 articles included, with 13 results, showed that the 211 participants with PD, who belonged to the group performing dance, had a standardized mean difference of postural control 0.82 [0.52, 1.12] greater than the 182 participants who were in a control situation. The statistically significant results of this meta-analysis indicate that dance can improve postural control in people with PD in a short period of time and therefore contribute to the prevention of falls.

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Erika D. Van Dyke, Aaron Metzger and Sam J. Zizzi

Little research has integrated mindfulness and perfectionism, particularly within sports wherein athletes are judged on performance to a standard of perfection. The current study had two primary aims: (a) to explore profiles of mindfulness and perfectionism among intercollegiate gymnasts through a person-centered approach and (b) to analyze differences in objective performance across the resulting profiles. The analytic sample consisted of 244 NCAA gymnasts who completed self-report measures of mindfulness and perfectionism. Competitive performance records (i.e., national qualifying scores) were then gathered for participating gymnasts. Cluster analyses revealed a three-cluster solution; however, significant performance differences were not observed across the three profiles due to lower than desired power. Small to moderate effect size estimates provided some evidence that perfectionism may be adaptive to gymnastics performance. Elite-level athletes were represented across three distinct profiles, suggesting that more than one profile of characteristics may be adaptive for reaching high levels of performance.

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Kara K. Palmer, Danielle Harkavy, Sarah M. Rock and Leah E. Robinson

Purpose: Motor skill interventions are effective for improving young children’s fundamental motor skills, but less is known regarding if boys and girls equally benefit from these interventions. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in preschool-aged boys’ and girls’ fundamental motor skills across an intervention. Methods: Sixty-eight children (M age = 4.4 years, SD = 0.44) participated in the study and completed the Test of Gross Motor Development 2nd Edition before and after a 600-minute Children’s Health Activity Motor Program (CHAMP) intervention. All girls’ (n = 27) and a random subsample of boys’ (n = 27) total, locomotor subtest, object control skill subtests, and individual skills were compared before (pre) and after (post) CHAMP. Potential sex differences in treatment effects were examined by sex by treatment interactions from repeated measures ANOVA, and potential sex differences in individual skills before, after, and across (change) were examined using MANOVAs. Results: Boys and girls had similar motor skills before and after the intervention. Boys and girls had higher scores at posttest, and CHAMP was equally effective for boys and girls. Boys outperformed girls on the run and kick (p < .05) at posttest. Conclusion: Findings support that CHAMP improves skills for both preschool boys and girls.

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Kristin Suorsa, Anna Pulakka, Tuija Leskinen, Jaana Pentti, Andreas Holtermann, Olli J. Heinonen, Juha Sunikka, Jussi Vahtera and Sari Stenholm

Background: The accuracy of wrist-worn accelerometers in identifying sedentary time has been scarcely studied in free-living conditions. The aim of this study was to compare daily sedentary time estimates between a thigh-worn accelerometer, which measured sitting and lying postures, and a wrist-worn accelerometer, which measured low levels of movement. Methods: The study population consisted of 259 participants (M age = 62.8 years, SD = 0.9) from the Finnish Retirement and Aging Study (FIREA). Participants wore an Axivity AX3 accelerometer on their mid-thigh and an Actigraph wActiSleep-BT accelerometer on their non-dominant wrist simultaneously for a minimum of 4 days in free-living conditions. Two definitions to estimate daily sedentary time were used for data from the wrist-worn accelerometer: 1) the count cutpoint, ≤1853 counts per minute; and 2) the Euclidean Norm Minus One (ENMO) cutpoint, <30 mg. Results: Compared to the thigh-worn accelerometer, daily sedentary time estimate was 63 min (95% confidence interval [CI] = −53 to −73) lower by the count cutpoint and 50 min (95% CI = 34 to 67) lower by the ENMO cutpoint. The limits of agreement in daily sedentary time estimates between the thigh- and cutpoint methods for wrist-worn accelerometers were wide (the count cutpoint: −117 to 243, the ENMO cutpoint: −212 to 313 min). Conclusions: Currently established cutpoint-based methods to estimate sedentary time from wrist-worn accelerometers result in underestimation of daily sedentary time compared to posture-based estimates of thigh-worn accelerometers. Thus, sedentary time estimates obtained from wrist-worn accelerometers using currently available cutpoint-based methods should be interpreted with caution and future work is needed to improve their accuracy.

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Mohsen Shafizadeh, Jane Manson, Sally Fowler-Davis, Khalid Ali, Anna C. Lowe, Judy Stevenson, Shahab Parvinpour and Keith Davids

The incidence of falling, due to aging, is related to both personal and environmental factors. There is a clear need to understand the nature of the major risk factors and design features of a safe and navigable living environment for potential fallers. The aim of this scoping review was to identify studies that have examined the effectiveness of environments, which promote physical activity and have an impact on falls prevention. Selected studies were identified and categorized into four main topics: built environment, environment modifications, enriched environments, and task constraints. The results of this analysis showed that there are a limited number of studies aiming to enhance dynamic postural stability and fall prevention through designing more functional environments. This scoping review study suggests that the design of interventions and the evaluation of an environment to support fall prevention are topics for future research.

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William Boyer, James Churilla, Amy Miller, Trevor Gillum and Marshare Penny

Background: The effects of aerobic physical activity (PA) and muscular strengthening activity (MSA) on all-cause mortality risk need further exploration among ethnically diverse populations. Purpose: To examine potential effect modification of race-ethnicity on meeting the PA guidelines and on all-cause mortality. Methods: The study sample (N = 14,384) included adults (20–79 y of age) from the 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PA was categorized into 6 categories based on the 2018 PA guidelines: category 1 (inactive), category 2 (insufficient PA and no MSA), category 3 (active and no MSA), category 4 (no PA and sufficient MSA), category 5 (insufficient PA and sufficient MSA), and category 6 (meeting both recommendations). Race-ethnic groups examined included non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American. Cox-proportional hazard models were used. Results: Significant risk reductions were found for categories 2, 3, and 6 for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black. Among Mexican American, significant risk reductions were found in category 6. Conclusion: In support of the 2018 PA guidelines, meeting both the aerobic PA and MSA guidelines significantly reduced risk for all-cause mortality independent of race-ethnicity. The effects of aerobic PA alone seem to be isolated to non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black.

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Ruth P. Saunders, Rod K. Dishman, Marsha Dowda and Russell R. Pate

Background: Interventions promoting physical activity (PA) in youth have had limited success, in part because studies with methodological challenges have yielded an incomplete understanding of personal, social, and environmental influences on PA. This study described changes in these factors for subgroups of youth with initially high PA that decreased (Active-Decline) compared with children with initially low PA that decreased (Inactive-Decline) from fifth to ninth grades. Methods: Observational, prospective cohort design. Participants (n = 625) were fifth-grade children recruited in 2 school districts and followed from elementary to high school. Students and their parents responded to questionnaires to assess personal, social, and perceived physical environmental factors in the fifth (mean age = 10.5 [.5] y) and ninth (mean age = 14.7 [.6] y) grades. Analyses included a mixed-model 2-way repeated analysis of variances. Results: Children in the Active-Decline compared with those in the Inactive-Decline group showed a more favorable profile in 6 of 8 personal variables (perceived barriers, self-efficacy, self-schema, enjoyment, competence, and fitness motives) and 4 of 6 social variables (friend support, parent encouragement, parent support, and parent-reported support). Conclusions: The results suggest efforts to promote PA should target selected personal, social, and perceived environmental factors beginning before age 10 and continuing through adolescence.

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Daniel H. Aslan, Joshua M. Collette and Justus D. Ortega

The decline of walking performance is a key determinant of morbidity among older adults. Healthy older adults have been shown to have a 15–20% lower walking economy compared with young adults. However, older adults who run for exercise have a higher walking economy compared with older adults who walk for exercise. Yet, it remains unclear if other aerobic exercises yield similar improvements on walking economy. The purpose of this study was to determine if regular bicycling exercise affects walking economy in older adults. We measured metabolic rate while 33 older adult “bicyclists” or “walkers” and 16 young adults walked on a level treadmill at four speeds between (0.75–1.75 m/s). Across the range of speeds, older bicyclists had a 9–17% greater walking economy compared with older walkers (p = .009). In conclusion, bicycling exercise mitigates the age-related deterioration of walking economy, whereas walking for exercise has a minimal effect on improving walking economy.

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Shuge Zhang, Ross Roberts, Tim Woodman and Andrew Cooke

Narcissism–performance research has focused on grandiose narcissism but has not examined the interaction between its so-called adaptive (reflecting overconfidence) and maladaptive (reflecting a domineering orientation) components. In this research, the authors tested interactions between adaptive and maladaptive narcissism using two motor tasks (basketball and golf in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively) and a cognitive task (letter transformation in Experiment 3). Across all experiments, adaptive narcissism predicted performance under pressure only when maladaptive narcissism was high. In the presence of maladaptive narcissism, adaptive narcissism also predicted decreased pre-putt time in Experiment 2 and an adaptive psychophysiological response in Experiment 3, reflecting better processing efficiency. Findings suggest that individuals high in both aspects of narcissism perform better under pressure thanks to superior task processing. In performance contexts, the terms “adaptive” and “maladaptive”—adopted from social psychology—are oversimplistic and inaccurate. The authors believe that “self-inflated narcissism” and “dominant narcissism” are better monikers for these constructs.