Aquatic Instructors’ Beliefs Toward Inclusion: The Theory of Planned Behavior

in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
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  • 1 West Texas A.M. University
  • 2 University of Virginia
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The purpose was to (a) examine aquatic instructors’ beliefs (female, n = 82; male, n = 29) about teaching swimming to individuals with disabilities in inclusive settings and (b) test the theory of planned behavior model (Ajzen, 1985, 1988, 2001). Aquatic instructors from 25 states representing 122 cities across the U.S. participated in this study. The instrument, named Aquatic Instructors’ Beliefs Toward Inclusion (AIBTI), was an extended version of the Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities— Swim (Conatser, Block, & Lepore, 2000). A correlated t test showed aquatic instructors’ beliefs (attitudes toward the behavior, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, intention, behavior) were significantly more favorable toward teaching aquatics to individuals with mild disabilities than individuals with severe disabilities. Stepwise multiple regression showed perceived behavioral control and attitude significantly predicted intention, and intention predicted instructors’ inclusive behavior for both disability groups. Further, results indicated the theory of planned behavior predicts aquatic instructors’ behavior better than the theory of reasoned action.

Phillip Conatser is with the Department of Sports and Exercise Sciences at West Texas A.M. University, Box 60216, Canyon, TX 79016. E-mail: <>. Martin Block is with the Dept. of Kinesiology at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA. Bruce Gansneder is with the Curry School of Education at the University of Virginia.

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