Student Attitudes Toward Inclusion in Physical Education: The Impact of Ability Beliefs, Gender, and Previous Experiences

in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
Restricted access

Purchase Article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $63.00

1 year subscription

USD  $84.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $119.00

2 year subscription

USD  $156.00

This study addresses the associations between students’ ability beliefs and attitudes toward inclusion in physical education, as well as the impact of gender and previous contact/participation with children with disability on these variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 976 students (491 girls and 485 boys; age 11–16 years), who responded to ability beliefs and attitudes questionnaires. Ability beliefs (entity and incremental) and the 3 sociodemographic variables predicted 20.4% and 9% of the behavioral and cognitive subscales of attitudes, respectively. Students with higher scores for entity beliefs of ability had a less favorable attitude toward inclusion. Girls reported more favorable attitudes toward inclusion than boys. Students who indicated previous participation in physical activities with children with disabilities showed attitudes that were more favorable in both the behavioral and cognitive subscales, while those who reported previous contact had more favorable attitudes in the behavioral subscale and lower entity beliefs. However, the 3 sociodemographic variables had a lower contribution to the explained variance of attitudes.

Reina, Iniguez-Santiago, and Moreno-Murcia are with Sport Research Center, Miguel Hernández University, Alicante, Spain. Hutzler is with the Zinman College at the Wingate Institute, Netanya, Israel, and Israel Sport Center for the Disabled, Netanya, Israel.

Reina (rreina@goumh.es) is corresponding author.
  • Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211. doi:10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Allport, G.W. (1979). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Basic Books.

  • An, J., & Meaney, K.S. (2015). Inclusion practices in elementary physical education: A social-cognitive perspective. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 62(2), 143–157. doi:10.1080/1034912X.2014.998176

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Archie, V.W., & Sherrill, C. (1989). Attitudes toward handicapped peers of mainstreamed and nonmainstreamed children in physical education. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 69, 319–322. PubMed ID: 2528719 doi:10.2466/pms.1989.69.1.319

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Armstrong, M., Morris, C., Abraham, C., & Tarrant, M. (2017). Interventions lumnusi contact with people with disabilities to improve children’s attitudes towards disability: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Disability and Health Journal, 10(1), 11–22. PubMed ID: 27780687 doi:10.1016/j.dhjo.2016.10.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Armstrong, M., Morris, C., Abraham, C., Ukoumunne, O.C., & Tarrant, M. (2016). Children’s contact with people with disabilities and their attitudes towards disability: A cross-sectional study. Disability and Rehabilitation, 38(9), 879–888. PubMed ID: 26289369 doi:10.3109/09638288.2015.1074727

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bebetsos, E., Derri, V., Filippou, F., Zetou, E., & Vernadakis, N. (2014). Elementary school children’s behavior towards the inclusion of peers with disabilities, in mainstream physical education classes. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 152, 819–823. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.09.327

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bebetsos, E., Zafeiriadis, S., Derri, V., & Kyrgiridis, P. (2013). Relationship among students’ attitudes, intentions and behaviors towards the inclusion of peers with disabilities, in mainstream physical education classes. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 5(3), 233–248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Biddle, S.J.H., Wang, C.K.J., Chatzisarantis, N.L.D., & Spray, C.M. (2003). Motivation for physical activity in young people: Entity and incremental beliefs about athletic ability. Journal of Sports Sciences, 21, 973–989. PubMed ID: 14748455 doi:10.1080/02640410310001641377

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Block, M.E. (1995). Development and validation of the children’s attitudes toward integrated physical education-revised (CAIPE-R) inventory. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 12, 60–77. doi:10.1123/apaq.12.1.60

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Block, M.E. (2000). Including children with disabilities in regular physical education: A guide for practitioners. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burnette, J.L., O’Boyle, E.H., VanEpps, E.M., Pollack, J.M., & Finkel, E.J. (2013). Mind-sets matter: A meta-analytic review of implicit theories and self-regulation. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 655–701. PubMed ID: 22866678 doi:10.1037/a0029531

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Campos, M.J., Ferreira, J.P., & Block, M.E. (2013). An analysis into the structure, validity and reliability of the children’s attitudes towards integrated physical education-revised (CAIPE-R). European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity, 6(2), 29–37.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Campos, M.J., Ferreira, J.P., & Block, M.E. (2014). Influence of an awareness program on Portuguese middle and high school students’ perceptions of peers with disabilities. Psychological Reports, 115(3), 897–912. PubMed ID: 25386703 doi:10.2466/11.15.PR0.115c26z7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cea, M.A. (2002). Análisis multivariable. Teoría y práctica en la investigación social [Multivariable analysis. Theory and practice in social research]. Madrid, Spain: Síntesis.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

  • Cordente-Mesas, D., González-Víllora, S., Block, M.E., & Contreras-Jordán, O.R. (2017). Structure, validity and reliability of the Children’s Attitudes towards Integrated Physical Education-Spanish version (CAIPE-SP). European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity, 9(2), 3–12.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Council of Europe. (2013). Recommendation CM/Rec(2013)2 of the Committee of Ministers to member States on ensuring full inclusion of children and young persons with disabilities into society (adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 16 October 2013 at the 1181st meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies). Retrieved from https://www.awiph.be/youthinclusion/fichiers/Recommandations-en.pdf

    • Export Citation
  • Cronbach, L.J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3), 297–334. doi:10.1007/BF02310555

  • Da Fonseca, D., Cury, F., Bailly, D., & Rufo, M. (2004). Role of the implicit theories of intelligence in learning situations. Encephale, 30(5), 456–463. PubMed ID: 15627050 doi:10.1016/S0013-7006(04)95460-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Boer, A., Pijl, S.J., Minnaert, A., & Post, W. (2014). Evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention program to influence attitudes of students towards peers with disabilities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(3), 572–583. PubMed ID: 23982486 doi:10.1007/s10803-013-1908-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Draper, N.R., & Smith, H. (2014). Applied regression analysis. New York, NY: Wiley.

  • Dweck, C.S. (1999). Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality and development. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor and Francis/Psychology Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dweck, C.S., & Leggett, E.L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256–273. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.95.2.256

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Economic and Social Council. (2004). La situación de las personas con discapacidad en España. Madrid, Spain: Author.

  • Felipe-Rello, C. (2017). Actitudes hacia la discapacidad: análisis comparativo del efecto de tres programas de sensibilización en educación física (Unpublished doctoral thesis). Madrid, Spain: Universidad Autónoma of Madrid.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frese, E., & Yun, J. (2007). Effects of disability awareness on general acceptance, acceptance of inclusive physical education, and knowledge of secondary level students in physical education. Retrieved from http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/handle/1957/1941?show=full

    • Export Citation
  • Goodwin, D.L., & Watkinson, E.J. (2000). Inclusive physical education from the perspective of students with physical disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 17, 144–160. doi:10.1123/apaq.17.2.144

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haag, H. (1989). Research in ‘sport pedagogy’—One field of theoretical study in the science of sport. International Review of Education, 35(1), 5–16. doi:10.1007/BF00597680

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hutzler, Y. (2003). Attitudes toward the participation of individuals with disabilities in physical activity: A review. Quest, 55, 347–373. doi:10.1080/00336297.2003.10491809

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hutzler, Y., & Levi, I. (2008). Including children with a disability in physical education: General and specific attitudes of high-school students. European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity, 1(2), 21–30.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hutzler, Y., Zach, S., & Gafni, O. (2005). Physical education students’ attitudes and self-efficacy towards the participation of children with special needs in regular classes. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 20(3), 309–327. doi:10.1080/08856250500156038

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kalymon, K., Gettinger, M., & Hanley-Maxwell, C. (2010). Middle school boys’ perspectives on social relationships with peers with disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 31, 305–316. doi:10.1177/0741932508327470

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, W., Lee, A.M., & Solmon, M.A. (2006). Gender differences in beliefs about the influence of ability and effort in sport and physical activity. Sex Roles, 54, 147–156. doi:10.1007/s11199-006-8876-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lieberman, L.J., & Wilson, S. (2005). Effects of a sport camp practicum on attitudes toward children with visual impairments and deafblindness. RE:view: Rehabilitation Education for Blindness and Visual Impairment, 36(4), 141–153. doi:10.3200/REVU.36.4.141-154

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lodewyk, K. (2009). Relations among beliefs about epistemology, ability conceptions, and achievement in high school physical education students. Physical Educator, 66, 124–138.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McKay, C. (2018). The value of contact: Unpacking Allport’s Contact Theory to support inclusive education. Palaestra, 32(1), 21–25.

  • McKay, C., Block, M.E., & Park, J.Y. (2015). The impact of Paralympic School Day on attitudes toward inclusion in physical education. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 32(4), 331–348. PubMed ID: 26485737 doi:10.1123/APAQ.2015-0045

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Menard, S.W. (1995). Applied logistic regression analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Ministerio de Educación Cultura y Deporte. (2017). Las cifras de la educación en España. Curso 2014–2015 [The official statistics of education in Spain]. Madrid, Spain: Author. Retrieved from https://www.mecd.gob.es/servicios-al-ciudadano-mecd/estadisticas/educacion/indicadores-publicaciones-sintesis/cifras-educacion-espana/2014-15.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moreno-Murcia, J.A., Cervelló, E.M., Martínez-Galindo, M.C., & Moreno, R. (2013). Validation of the Scale of Implicit Beliefs of Ability (CNAAQ-2) to the Spanish context. Differences according to the physical practice sports. International Journal of Sport Science, 32, 100–113. doi:10.5232/ricyde2013.03201

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Obrusnikova, I., Block, M.E., & Dillon, S.R. (2010). Children’s beliefs toward cooperative playing with peers with disabilities in physical education. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 27, 127–142. PubMed ID: 20440024 doi:10.1123/apaq.27.2.127

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Obrusnikova, I., & Dillon, S.R. (2012). Students’ beliefs and intentions to play with peers with disabilities in physical education: Relationships with achievement and social goals. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 31(4), 311–328. doi:10.1123/jtpe.31.4.311

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Obrusnikova, I., Dillon, S.R., & Block, M.E. (2011). Middle school student intentions to play with peers with disabilities in physical education: Using the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 23, 113–127. doi:10.1007/s10882-010-9210-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Obrusnikova, I., Dillon, S.R., Block, M.E., & Davis, T.D. (2012). Validation of the children’s beliefs and intentions to play with peers with disabilities in middle school physical education scale. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 24(1), 35–51. doi:10.1007/s10882-011-9253-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ocete, C., Franco, E., Coterón, J., & Pérez-Tejero, J. (2017). Validación de la versión española del cuestionario “Actitudes de los alumnos hacia la integración en educación física (CAIPE-R).” Psychology, Society, & Education, 9(3), 447–458. doi:10.25115/psye.v9i3.1025

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ommundsen, Y. (2001). Pupils’ affective responses in physical education classes: The association of implicit theories of the nature of ability and achievement goals. European Physical Education Review, 7, 219–242. doi:10.1177/1356336X010073001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ommundsen, Y. (2003). Implicit theories of ability and self-regulation strategies in physical education classes. Educational Psychology, 23, 141–157. doi:10.1080/01443410303224

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Özer, D., Nablant, S., Aglamis, E., Baran, F., Kaya Samut, P., Aktop, A., & Hutzler, Y. (2013). Physical education teachers’ attitudes towards children with intellectual disability: The impact of time in service, gender, and previous acquaintance. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 57(11), 1001–1013. PubMed ID: 22823106 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2788.2012.01596.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Panagiotou, A.K., Evaggelinou, C., Doulkeridou, A., Mouratidou, K., & Koidou, E. (2008). Attitudes of 5th and 6th grade Greek students toward the inclusion of children with disabilities in physical education classes after a Paralympic education program. European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity, 1(2), 31–43.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reina, R., Hutzler, Y., Iniguez-Santiago, M.C., & Moreno-Murcia, J.M. (2016). Attitudes towards Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Physical Education Questionnaire (AISDPE): A two-component scale in Spanish. European Journal of Human Movement, 36, 1–25.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reina, R., López, V., Jiménez, M., García-Calvo, T., & Hutzler, Y. (2011). Effects of awareness interventions on children’s attitudes toward peers with a visual impairment. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 34(3), 243–248. PubMed ID: 21694601 doi:10.1097/MRR.0b013e3283487f49

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sarrazin, P., Biddle, S.J.H., Famose, J.P., Cury, F., Fox, K., & Durand, M. (1996). Goal orientations and conceptions of the nature of sport ability in children: A social cognitive approach. British Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 399–414. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8309.1996.tb01104.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Slater, M.J., Spray, C.M., & Smith, B.M. (2012). “You’re only as good as your weakest link”: Implicit theories of golf ability. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13, 280–290. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.11.010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Slininger, D., Sherrill, C., & Jankowski, C.M. (2000). Children’s attitudes toward peers with severe disabilities: Revisiting contact theory. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 17, 176–196. doi:10.1123/apaq.17.2.176

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tacq, J. (1997). Multivariate analysis techniques in social science research. From problem to analysis. London, UK: Sage.

  • Tinning, R. (2008). Pedagogy, sport pedagogy, and the field of kinesiology. Quest, 60(3), 405–424. doi:10.1080/00336297.2008.10483589

  • Triandis, H.C. (1971). Attitude and attitude change. New York, NY: Wiley.

  • Turner, R.N., Crisp, R.J., & Lambert, E. (2007). Imagining intergroup contact can improve intergroup attitudes. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 10(4), 427–441. doi:10.1177/1368430207081533

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Biesen, D., Busciglio, A., & Vanlandewijck, Y. (2006, September 7–9). Attitudes towards inclusion of children with disabilities: The effect of the implementation of “A Paralympic School Day” on Flemish elementary children. In J. Wittmannová (Ed.), European conference of adapted physical activity (p. 66). Olomouc, Czech Republic: Palacky University.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van der Ploeg, H.P., van der Beek, A.J., van der Woude, L.H., & van Mechelen, W. (2004). Physical activity for people with a disability: A conceptual model. Sports Medicine, 34(10), 639–649. PubMed ID: 15335241 doi:10.2165/00007256-200434100-00002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vella, S.A., Braithewaite, R.E., Gardner, L.A., & Spray, C.M. (2016). A systematic review and meta-analysis of implicit theory research in sport, physical activity, and physical education. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 9(1), 191–214. doi:10.1080/1750984X.2016.1160418

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Verderber, J.M.S., Rizzo, T.L., & Sherrill, C. (2003). Assessing student intention to participate in inclusive physical education. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 20, 26–45. doi:10.1123/apaq.20.1.26

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vignes, C., Coley, N., Grandjean, H., Godeau, E., & Arnaud, C. (2008). Measuring children’s attitudes towards peers with disabilities: A review of instruments. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 50(3), 182–189. PubMed ID: 18261111 doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2008.02032.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, C.J., & Biddle, S.J. (2001). Young people’s motivational profiles in physical activity: A cluster analysis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 23, 1–22. doi:10.1123/jsep.23.1.1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, C.K.J., & Biddle, S.J.H. (2003). Intrinsic motivation towards sports in Singaporean students: The role of sport ability beliefs. Journal of Health Psychology, 8, 515–523. PubMed ID: 19177714 doi:10.1177/13591053030085004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, C.K.J., Chatzisarantis, N.L.D., Spray, C.M., & Biddle, S.J.H. (2002). Achievement goal profiles in school physical education: Differences in self-determination, sport ability beliefs, and physical activity. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 433–445. PubMed ID: 12396315 doi:10.1348/000709902320634401

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Warburton, V.E., & Spray, C.M. (2008). Motivation in physical education across the primary–secondary school transition. European Physical Education Review, 14, 157–178. doi:10.1177/1356336X08090704

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wisely, D., & Morgan, S. (1981). Children’s ratings of peers presented as mentally retarded and physically handicapped. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 86, 281–286. PubMed ID: 6458210

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Health Organization. (2001). International classification of functioning, disability and health. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. Retrieved from http://psychiatr.ru/download/1313?view=name=CF_18.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 422 422 82
Full Text Views 50 50 4
PDF Downloads 29 29 4