Social-Media-Based Antibrand Communities Opposing Sport-Team Sponsors: Insights From Two Prototypical Communities

in International Journal of Sport Communication
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $63.00

1 year subscription

USD  $84.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $119.00

2 year subscription

USD  $156.00

This study investigated social-media-based anti-sponsor-brand communities and their impacts, not only on the sponsoring brand but also on the sponsored club and the sport itself. Guided by balance theory and social identity theory, the authors conducted a qualitative study of 2 distinctive, prototypical Facebook-based anti-sponsor-brand communities of teams from the German Football League (Bundesliga). The results reveal common findings for both cases, including members’ motivation to oppose a sponsor and, at the same time, to protect the sport. However, the communities differ in terms of their members’ relationships to the club. This results in different consequences for the sponsor and club brands, as well as for other actors in the sponsorship network. To managers of clubs, sponsors, and sport-governing bodies, the authors suggest concerted strategies like image campaigns and interaction with anti-sponsor-brand communities as responses to different community motivations.

Popp is with the Dept. of Retail Management, Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany. Horbel is with the Dept. of Sociology, Environmental and Business Economics, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark, and the Dept. of Cultural and Social Studies, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway. Germelmann is with the Dept. of Marketing and Services, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.

Popp (bastian.popp@uni-saarland.de) is corresponding author.
  • Abeza, G., O’Reilly, N., Séguin, B., & Nzindukiyimana, O. (2015). Social media scholarship in sport management research: A critical review. Journal of Sport Management, 29(6), 601–618. doi:10.1123/JSM.2014-0296

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abeza, G., O’Reilly, N., Seguin, B., & Nzindukiyimana, O. (2017a). Social media as a relationship marketing tool in professional sport: A netnographical exploration. International Journal of Sport Communication, 10(3), 325–358. doi:10.1123/ijsc.2017-0041

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abeza, G., O’Reilly, N., Séguin, B., & Nzindukiyimana, O. (2017b). The world’s highest-paid athletes, product endorsement, and Twitter. Sport, Business and Management, 7(3), 332–355. doi:10.1108/SBM-08-2016-0040

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ahn, T., Hong, M., & Pedersen, P.M. (2014). Effects of perceived interactivity and Web organization on user attitudes. European Sport Management Quarterly, 14(2), 111–128. doi:10.1080/16184742.2014.880496

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Angell, R.J., Gorton, M., Bottomley, P., & White, J. (2016). Understanding fans’ responses to the sponsor of a rival team. European Sport Management Quarterly, 16(2), 190–213. doi:10.1080/16184742.2015.1135975

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Armbrecht, A. (2016). Alles andere als ein normaler Bundesliga-Neuling. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Retrieved from http://www.faz.net/aktuell/sport/fussball/bundesliga/rb-leipzig-ist-kein-normaler-1-bundesliga-aufsteiger-14223511.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bauer, H.H., Hattula, S., Grimm, A., & Ebertin, C. (2012). “Die dunkle Seite des Sponsoring” – Unliebsame Effekte von Rivalität auf die Sponsorenmarke. Marketing Review St. Gallen, 29(1), 54–60. doi:10.1007/s11621-012-0112-y

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baumeister, R.F., Bratslavsky, E., Finkenauer, C., & Vohs, K.D. (2001). Bad is stronger than good. Review of General Psychology, 5(4), 323–370. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.5.4.323

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bebbington, K., MacLeod, C., Ellison, T.M., & Fay, N. (2017). The sky is falling: Evidence of a negativity bias in the social transmission of information. Evolution and Human Behavior, 38(1), 92–101. doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2016.07.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bee, C., & Dalakas, V. (2015). Rivalries and sponsor affiliation: Examining the effects of social identity and argument strength on responses to sponsorship-related advertising messages. Journal of Marketing Communications, 21(6), 408–424. doi:10.1080/13527266.2013.828768

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Belk, R., Fischer, E., & Kozinets, R.V. (2013). Qualitative consumer and marketing research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Benkwitz, A., & Molnar, G. (2012). Interpreting and exploring football fan rivalries: An overview. Soccer & Society, 13(4), 479–494. doi:10.1080/14660970.2012.677224

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bergkvist, L. (2012). The flipside of the sponsorship coin. Journal of Advertising Research, 52(1), 65–73. doi:10.2501/JAR-52-1-065-073

  • Brown, A. (2007). “Not for sale”? The destruction and reformation of football communities in the Glazer takeover of Manchester United. Soccer & Society, 8(4), 614–635. doi:10.1080/14660970701440972

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chadwick, S. (2014). The future of sport. International Centre for Sport Security Journal, 1(4), 102.

  • Chanavat, N., & Desbordes, M. (2014). Towards the regulation and restriction of ambush marketing? The first truly social and digital mega sports event: Olympic Games, London 2012. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 15(3), 151–160. doi:10.1108/IJSMS-15-03-2014-B002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Charmaz, K. (2014). Constructing grounded theory (2nd ed.). London, UK: Sage.

  • Cornwell, T.B., Lipp, O.V., & Purkis, H. (2016). Examination of affective responses to images in sponsorship-linked marketing. Journal of Global Sport Management, 1(3–4), 110–128. doi:10.1080/24704067.2016.1240947

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cornwell, T.B., Weeks, C.S., & Roy, D.P. (2005). Sponsorship-linked marketing: Opening the black box. Journal of Advertising, 34(2), 21–42. doi:10.1080/00913367.2005.10639194

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crandall, C.S., Silvia, P.J., N’Gbala, A.N., Tsang, J.-A., & Dawson, K. (2007). Balance theory, unit relations, and attribution: The underlying integrity of Heiderian theory. Review of General Psychology, 11(1), 12–30. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.11.1.12

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dalakas, V., & Levin, A.M. (2005). The balance theory domino: How sponsorships may elicit negative consumer attitudes. Advances in Consumer Research, 32(1), 91–97.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dalakas, V., & Melancon, J.P. (2012). Fan identification, schadenfreude toward hated rivals, and the mediating effects of Importance of Winning Index (IWIN). Journal of Services Marketing, 26(1), 51–59. doi:10.1108/08876041211199724

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davies, F., Veloutsou, C., & Costa, A. (2006). Investigating the influence of a joint sponsorship of rival teams on supporter attitudes and brand preferences. Journal of Marketing Communications, 12(1), 31–48. doi:10.1080/13527260500264574

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Delia, E.B., & Armstrong, C.G. (2015). #Sponsoring the #FrenchOpen: An examination of social media buzz and sentiment. Journal of Sport Management, 29(2), 184–199. doi:10.1123/JSM.2013-0257

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Do, H., Ko, E., & Woodside, A.G. (2015). Tiger woods, Nike, and I are (not) best friends: How brand’s sports sponsorship in social-media impacts brand consumer’s congruity and relationship quality. International Journal of Advertising, 34(4), 658–677. doi:10.1080/02650487.2015.1031062

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Escalas, J.E., & Bettman, J.R. (2005). Self-construal, reference groups, and brand meaning. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(3), 378–389. doi:10.1086/497549

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Filo, K., Lock, D., & Karg, A. (2015). Sport and social media research: A review. Sport Management Review, 18(2), 166–181. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2014.11.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Focus Online. (2012). Fans laufen Sturm gegen Sponsor Wiesenhof: Wutwelle gegen Hühnerbrust-Trikot von Werder Bremen. Retrieved from https://www.focus.de/sport/fussball/werder-bremen-fans-laufen-sturm-gegen-neuen-sponsor-shitstorm-gegen-die-geplante-huehnerbrust-auf-dem-trikot_aid_796541.html

    • Export Citation
  • Fournier, S., & Avery, J. (2011). The uninvited brand. Business Horizons, 54(3), 193–207. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2011.01.001

  • Friedman, M. (1985). Consumer boycotts in the United States, 1970–1980: Contemporary events in historical perspective. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 19(1), 96–117. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6606.1985.tb00346.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gatson, S.N., & Zweerink, A. (2004). Ethnography online: ‘Natives’ practising and inscribing community. Qualitative Research, 4(2), 179–200. doi:10.1177/1468794104044431

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grimmer, C.G., & Kian, E.M. (2013). Reflections of German football journalists on their relationships with Bundesliga club public relations practitioners. International Journal of Sport Communication, 6(4), 446–463. doi:10.1123/ijsc.6.4.446

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grohs, R., & Reisinger, H. (2014). Sponsorship effects on brand image: The role of exposure and activity involvement. Journal of Business Research, 67(5), 1018–1025. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2013.08.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grohs, R., Reisinger, H., & Woisetschläger, D.M. (2015). Attenuation of negative sponsorship effects in the context of rival sports teams’ fans. European Journal of Marketing, 49(11/12), 1880–1901. doi:10.1108/EJM-01-2013-0010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gwinner, K.P. (1997). A model of image creation and image transfer in event sponsorship. International Marketing Review, 14(3), 145–158. doi:10.1108/02651339710170221

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gwinner, K.P., & Eaton, J. (1999). Building brand image through event sponsorship: The role of image transfer. Journal of Advertising, 28(4), 47–57. doi:10.1080/00913367.1999.10673595

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

  • Hickman, T.M., & Lawrence, K.E. (2010). The halo effect of goodwill sponsorship versus the pitchfork effect of supporting the enemy. Journal of Sponsorship, 3(3), 265–276.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hickman, T.M., & Ward, J. (2007). The dark side of brand community: Inter-group stereotyping, trash talk, and schadenfreude. In G. Fitzsimons & V. Morwitz (Eds.), Advances in consumer research (Vol. 34, pp. 314–319). Duluth, MN: Association for Consumer Research.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hill, J.S., & Vincent, J. (2006). Globalisation and sports branding: The case of Manchester United. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, 7(3), 61–78. doi:10.1108/IJSMS-07-03-2006-B008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoffman, D.L., Novak, T.P., & Kang, H. (2017). Let’s get closer: Feelings of connectedness from using social media, with implications for brand outcomes. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, 2(2), 216–228. doi:10.1086/690938

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hollenbeck, C.R., & Zinkhan, G.M. (2006). Consumer activism on the Internet: The role of anti-brand communities. In C. Pechmann & L.L. Price (Eds.), Advances in consumer research (Vol. 33, pp. 1–7). Duluth, MN: Association for Consumer Research.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horizont. (2016). Anzahl der “gefällt mir”-angaben, follower und abonnenten der vereine der 1. Fußball-Bundesliga auf Facebook, Instagram, Twitter und YouTube aus der saison 2015/2016 (in 1.000). Retrieved from https://de.statista.com/statistik/daten/studie/591461/umfrage/fans-der-vereine-aus-der-ersten-fussball-bundesliga-in-den-sozialen-medien/

    • Export Citation
  • Kähr, A., Nyffenegger, B., Krohmer, H., & Hoyer, W.D. (2016). When hostile consumers wreak havoc on your brand: The phenomenon of consumer brand sabotage. Journal of Marketing, 80(3), 25–41. doi:10.1509/jm.15.0006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kicker. (2017). Umsatz: Bayern in einer Liga für sich – Wolfsburg bricht ein. Retrieved from http://www.kicker.de/news/fussball/bundesliga/startseite/715037/2/slideshow_umsatz_bayern-in-einer-liga-fuer-sich---wolfsburg-bricht-ein.html

    • Export Citation
  • Kohli, C., Suri, R., & Kapoor, A. (2015). Will social media kill branding? Business Horizons, 58(1), 35–44. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2014.08.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kozinets, R.V. (2010). Netnography: Doing ethnographic research online. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Kozinets, R.V. (2015). Netnography: Redefined (2nd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

  • Kozinets, R.V., & Handelman, J.M. (2004). Adversaries of consumption: Consumer movements, activism, and ideology. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(3), 691–704. doi:10.1086/425104

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krishnamurthy, S., & Kucuk, S.U. (2009). Anti-branding on the Internet. Journal of Business Research, 62(11), 1119–1126. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2008.09.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kroemer, U. (2017). RB Leipzig öffnet sich: Wieviel hat Red Bull in den Verein investiert? Mitteldeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved from https://www.mz-web.de/sport/rb-leipzig-oeffnet-sich-wieviel-hat-red-bull-in-den-verein-investiert--26229966

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kucuk, S.U. (2008). Negative double jeopardy: The role of anti-brand sites on the Internet. Journal of Brand Management, 15(3), 209–222. doi:10.1057/palgrave.bm.2550100

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, M.S.W., Motion, J., & Conroy, D. (2009). Anticonsumption and brand avoidance. Journal of Business Research, 62(2), 169–180. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2008.01.024

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, R., & Mazodier, M. (2015). The roles of consumer ethnocentrism, animosity, and cosmopolitanism in sponsorship effects. European Journal of Marketing, 49(5/6), 919–942. doi:10.1108/EJM-10-2013-0594

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lim, J.S., Hwang, Y., Kim, S., & Biocca, F.A. (2015). How social media engagement leads to sports channel loyalty: Mediating roles of social presence and channel commitment. Computers in Human Behavior, 46(3), 158–167. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.01.013

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lipsman, A., Mudd, G., Rich, M., & Bruich, S. (2012). The power of “like”: How brands reach (and influence) fans through social-media marketing. Journal of Advertising Research, 52(1), 40–52. doi:10.2501/JAR-52-1-040-052

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacIntosh, E., Abeza, G., & Lee, J. (2017). Enriching identity in the “fan nation”: The role of social media in the case of a professional sport team. Sport, Business and Management, 7(3), 315–331. doi:10.1108/SBM-06-2016-0028

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marticotte, F., Arcand, M., & Baudry, D. (2016). The impact of brand evangelism on oppositional referrals towards a rival brand. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 25(6), 538–549. doi:10.1108/JPBM-06-2015-0920

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martinez, R.J., Janney, J.J., Cornwell, T.B., & Kwak, D.H. (2015). Market reactions to corporate sponsorships of European football kits: The moderating effects of firm congruence. Journal of Sport Management, 29(2), 211–222. doi:10.1123/JSM.2014-0123

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Matthew, D.M., Constantino, S., & Kate, W. (2015). Engaging fans through social media: Implications for team identification. Sport, Business and Management, 5(3), 199–217. doi:10.1108/SBM-06-2013-0013

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meenaghan, T. (2001). Understanding sponsorship effects. Psychology & Marketing, 18(2), 95–122. doi:10.1002/1520-6793(200102)18:2<95::AID-MAR1001>3.0.CO;2-H

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meenaghan, T., McLoughlin, D., & McCormack, A. (2013). New challenges in sponsorship evaluation actors, new media, and the context of praxis. Psychology & Marketing, 30(5), 444–460. doi:10.1002/mar.20618

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morehead, C.A., O’Hallarn, B., & Shapiro, S.L. (2016). Tell me how you really feel: Analyzing debate, desire, and disinhibition in online sports news stories. International Journal of Sport Communication, 9(1), 13–35. doi:10.1123/ijsc.2015-0056

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muniz, A.M., & O’Guinn, T.C. (2001). Brand community. Journal of Consumer Research, 27(4), 412–432. doi:10.1086/319618

  • Murray, E. (2015). Hearts to feature Save the Children on shirts for next three seasons. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/football/2015/apr/01/hearts-feature-save-the-children-shirts

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oltermann, P. (2016). How RB Leipzig became the most hated club in German football. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/football/2016/sep/08/why-rb-leipzig-has-become-the-most-hated-club-in-german-football

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Reilly, N., & Lafrance Horning, D. (2013). Leveraging sponsorship: The activation ratio. Sport Management Review, 16(4), 424–437. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2013.01.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parganas, P., Anagnostopoulos, C., & Chadwick, S. (2015). ‘You’ll never tweet alone’: Managing sports brands through social media. Journal of Brand Management, 22(7), 551–568. doi:10.1057/bm.2015.32

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parker, H.M., & Fink, J.S. (2010). Negative sponsor behaviour, team response and how this impacts fan attitudes. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, 11(3), 17–28. doi:10.1108/IJSMS-11-03-2010-B003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Plé, L., & Cáceres, R.C. (2010). Not always co-creation: Introducing interactional co-destruction of value in service-dominant logic. Journal of Services Marketing, 24(6), 430–437. doi:10.1108/08876041011072546

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Popp, B., Germelmann, C.C., & Jung, B. (2016). We love to hate them! Social media-based anti-brand communities in professional football. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 17(4), 349–367. doi:10.1108/IJSMS-11-2016-018

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Popp, B., & Woratschek, H. (2016). Introducing branded communities in sport for building strong brand relations in social media. Sport Management Review, 19(2), 183–197. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2015.06.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rauschnabel, P.A., Kammerlander, N., & Ivens, B.S. (2016). Collaborative brand attacks in social media: Exploring the antecedents, characteristics, and consequences of a new form of brand crises. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 24(4), 381–410. doi:10.1080/10696679.2016.1205452

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ruf, C. (2014). Überdosis Red Bull. Spiegel Online. Retrieved from http://www.spiegel.de/sport/fussball/2-bundesliga-fans-schliessen-sich-gegen-rb-leipzig-zusammen-a-987403.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ruth, J.A., & Simonin, B.L. (2003). Brought to you by Brand A and Brand B. Journal of Advertising, 32(3), 19–30. doi:10.1080/00913367.2003.10639139

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ruth, J.A., & Strizhakova, Y. (2012). And now, goodbye. International Journal of Advertising, 31(1), 39–62. doi:10.2501/IJA-31-1-39-62

  • Schnittka, O., Sattler, H., & Farsky, M. (2013). Turning good ideas into bad news: The effect of negative and positive sponsorship information on sponsors’ brand image. Schmalenbach Business Review, 65(3), 227–247. doi:10.1007/BF03396856

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simonin, B.L., & Ruth, J.A. (1998). Is a company known by the company it keeps? Assessing the spillover effects of brand alliances on consumer brand attitudes. Journal of Marketing Research, 35(1), 30–42. doi:10.2307/3151928

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Socialbakers. (2018). Facebook statistics—Sport. Retrieved from https://www.socialbakers.com/statistics/facebook/pages/total/sport/

    • Export Citation
  • Spaaij, R., & Geilenkirchen, M. (2011). Ta(l)king sides: Ethical and methodological challenges in comparative fieldwork on avid football rivalries. Soccer & Society, 12(5), 633–651. doi:10.1080/14660970.2011.599583

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Speed, R., & Thompson, P. (2000). Determinants of sports sponsorship response. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(2), 226–238. doi:10.1177/0092070300282004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StatCounter. (2017). Social media stats Germany. Retrieved from http://gs.statcounter.com/social-media-stats/all/germany

    • Export Citation
  • Stieglitz, S., & Dang-Xuan, L. (2013). Emotions and information diffusion in social media—sentiment of microblogs and sharing behavior. Journal of Management Information Systems, 29(4), 217–248. doi:10.2753/MIS0742-1222290408

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stieler, M., Weismann, F., & Germelmann, C.C. (2014). Co-destruction of value by spectators: The case of silent protests. European Sport Management Quarterly, 14(1), 72–86. doi:10.1080/16184742.2013.865249

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sutton, W.A., McDonald, M.A., Milne, G.R., & Cimperman, J. (1997). Creating and fostering fan identification in professional sports. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 6(1), 15–22.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tajfel, H. (1978). Social categorization, social identity and social comparison. In H. Tajfel (Ed.), Differentiation between social groups: Studies in the social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 61–76). London, UK: Academic Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tajfel, H., & Turner, J.C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W.G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33–47). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thieringer, J. (2017). Bundesliga-Sponsoren: Das sind die 18 Trikotsponsoren der Clubs. Retrieved from https://www.ispo.com/unternehmen/id_78796694/sponsoren-der-bundesliga-clubs-alle-trikots-alle-einnahmen.html

    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, C.J., Rindfleisch, A., & Arsel, Z. (2006). Emotional branding and the strategic value of the Doppelgänger brand image. Journal of Marketing, 70(1), 50–64. doi:10.1509/jmkg.2006.70.1.50

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Touraine, A. (1985). An introduction to the study of social movements. Social Research, 52(4), 749–787.

  • Tyler, B.D., & Cobbs, J.B. (2015). Rival conceptions of rivalry: Why some competitions mean more than others. European Sport Management Quarterly, 15(2), 227–248. doi:10.1080/16184742.2015.1010558

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Uhrich, S. (2014). Exploring customer-to-customer value co-creation platforms and practices in team sports. European Sport Management Quarterly, 14(1), 25–49. doi:10.1080/16184742.2013.865248

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vargo, S.L., & Lusch, R.F. (2016). Institutions and axioms: An extension and update of service-dominant logic. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 44(1), 5–23. doi:10.1007/s11747-015-0456-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walliser, B. (2003). An international review of sponsorship research: Extension and update. International Journal of Advertising, 22(1), 5–40. doi:10.1080/02650487.2003.11072838

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walraven, M., Koning, R.H., & van Bottenburg, M. (2012). The effects of sports sponsorship: A review and research agenda. Marketing Review, 12(1), 17–38. doi:10.1362/146934712X13286274424235

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weeks, C.S., Cornwell, T.B., & Drennan, J.C. (2008). Leveraging sponsorships on the Internet: Activation, congruence, and articulation. Psychology & Marketing, 25(7), 637–654. doi:10.1002/mar.20229

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weijo, H., Hietanen, J., & Mattila, P. (2014). New insights into online consumption communities and netnography. Journal of Business Research, 67(10), 2072–2078. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2014.04.015

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woisetschläger, D.M., Backhaus, C., & Cornwell, T.B. (2017). Inferring corporate motives: How deal characteristics shape sponsorship perceptions. Journal of Marketing, 81(5), 121–141. doi:10.1509/jm.16.0082

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woisetschläger, D.M., Haselhoff, V.J., & Backhaus, C. (2014). Fans’ resistance to naming right sponsorships. European Journal of Marketing, 48(7/8), 1487–1510. doi:10.1108/EJM-03-2012-0140

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woratschek, H., Horbel, C., & Popp, B. (2014). The sport value framework—A new fundamental logic for analyses in sport management. European Sport Management Quarterly, 14(1), 6–24. doi:10.1080/16184742.2013.865776

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zdravkovic, S., & Till, B.D. (2012). Enhancing brand image via sponsorship. International Journal of Advertising, 31(1), 113–132. doi:10.2501/IJA-31-1-113-132

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 154 154 24
Full Text Views 6 6 1
PDF Downloads 3 3 0