Correcting Vitamin D Insufficiency Improves Some But Not All Aspects of Physical Performance During Winter Training in Taekwondo Athletes

in International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $87.00

1 year subscription

USD $116.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $165.00

2 year subscription

USD $215.00

We investigated the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on physical performance during winter training in vitamin D insufficient taekwondo athletes. Thirty-five collegiate male and female taekwondo athletes, aged 19–22 years with low serum 25(OH)D concentration (28.8 ± 1.10 nmol/L), were randomly assigned to a vitamin D group (n = 20) or a placebo group (n = 15). Subjects received either a vitamin D3 capsule (5,000 IU/day) or a placebo during 4 weeks of winter training. Blood samples were collected for analyzing serum 25(OH)D concentration. Physical performance tests included Wingate anaerobic test, isokinetic muscle strength and endurance, a countermovement jump test, sit-ups, agility test, and 20-m pacer. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased significantly in the vitamin D group (96.0 ± 3.77 nmol/L) after 4 weeks of supplementation, but no changes were found in the placebo group (F = 242.44, p = .000). There were significant interaction effects for anaerobic peak power (F = 7.49, p = .010) and isokinetic knee extension at 180 deg/s (F = 6.08, p = .019). Changes in serum 25(OH)D concentration were positively associated with changes in peak power and isokinetic knee extension at 180 deg/s. However, no significant interaction effects were observed in other performance variables. This study suggests that 4 weeks of vitamin D supplementation elevates serum 25(OH)D concentration to sufficient levels. Correcting vitamin D insufficiency improves some but not all aspects of performance. Thus, efficacy of vitamin D supplementation to enhance performance remains unclear.

H.C. Jung is with the Dept. of Kinesiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA. Seo, S.W. Jung, and Song are with the Dept. of Taekwondo, College of Physical Education, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. Lee is with the Dept. of Counseling, Health and Kinesiology, College of Education and Human Development, Texas A&M University-San Antonio, San Antonio, TX.

Address author correspondence to Jong Kook Song at jksong@khu.ac.kr.
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Article Sections
References
  • BarkerT.SchneiderE.D.DixonB.M.HenriksenV.T. & WeaverL.K. (2013). Supplemental vitamin D enhances the recovery in peak isometric force shortly after intense exercise. Nutrition & Metabolism 1069. PubMed ID: 24313936 doi:10.1186/1743-7075-10-69

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bischoff-FerrariH.A.Dawson-HughesB.StaehelinH.B.OravJ.E.StuckA.E.TheilerR. . . . HenschkowskiJ. (2009). Fall prevention with supplemental and active forms of vitamin D: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 3393692. PubMed ID: 19797342 doi:10.1136/bmj.b3692

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bischoff-FerrariH.A.DietrichT.OravE.J.HuF.B.ZhangY.KarlsonE.W. & Dawson-HughesB. (2004). Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with better lower-extremity function in both active and inactive persons aged ≥ 60 y. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80752758. PubMed ID: 15321818 doi:10.1093/ajcn/80.3.752

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CarrilloA.E.FlynnM.G.PinkstonC.MarkofskiM.M.JiangY.DonkinS.S. & TeegardenD. (2013). Impact of vitamin D supplementation during a resistance training intervention on body composition, muscle function, and glucose tolerance in overweight and obese adults. Clinical Nutrition 32375381. PubMed ID: 23034474 doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2012.08.014

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CegliaL. (2008). Vitamin D and skeletal muscle tissue and function. Molecular Aspects of Medicine 29407414. PubMed ID: 18727936 doi:10.1016/j.mam.2008.07.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChoiM.ParkH.ChoS. & LeeM. (2013). Vitamin D3 supplementation modulates inflammatory responses from the muscle damage induced by high-intensity exercise in SD rats. Cytokine 632735. PubMed ID: 23669253 doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2013.03.018

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CloseG.L.LeckeyJ.PattersonM.BradleyW.OwensD.J.FraserW.D. & MortonJ.P. (2013a). The effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on serum total 25[OH]D concentration and physical performance: A randomised dose–response study. British Journal of Sports Medicine 47692696. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2012-091735

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CloseG.L.RussellJ.CobleyJ.N.OwensD.J.WilsonG.GregsonW. . . . MortonJ.P. (2013b). Assessment of vitamin D concentration in non-supplemented professional athletes and healthy adults during the winter months in the UK: Implications for skeletal muscle function. Journal of Sports Sciences 31344353. doi:10.1080/02640414.2012.733822

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CohenJ. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Academic Press.

  • ConstantiniN.W.ArieliR.ChodickG. & Dubnov-RazG. (2010). High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in athletes and dancers. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 20368371. PubMed ID: 20818195 doi:10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181f207f2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DahlquistD.T.DieterB.P. & KoehleM.S. (2015). Plausible ergogenic effects of vitamin D on athletic performance and recovery. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 1233. PubMed ID: 26288575 doi:10.1186/s12970-015-0093-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DhesiJ.K.JacksonS.H.BearneL.M.MonizC.HurleyM.V.SwiftC.G. & AllainT.J. (2004). Vitamin D supplementation improves neuromuscular function in older people who fall. Age and Ageing 33589595. PubMed ID: 15501836 doi:10.1093/ageing/afh209

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dubnov-RazG.LivneN.RazR.CohenA.H. & ConstantiniN.W. (2015). Vitamin D supplementation and physical performance in adolescent swimmers. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 25317325. PubMed ID: 25203157 doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0180

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HallidayT.M.PetersonN.J.ThomasJ.J.KleppingerK.HollisB.W. & Larson-MeyerD.E. (2011). Vitamin D status relative to diet, lifestyle, injury, and illness in college athletes. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 43335343. PubMed ID: 20543748 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181eb9d4d

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HamiltonB.WhiteleyR.FarooqA. & ChalabiH. (2014). Vitamin D concentration in 342 professional football players and association with lower limb isokinetic function. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 17139143. PubMed ID: 23623203 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2013.03.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HeC.S.FraserW.D.TangJ.BrownK.RenwickS.Rudland-ThomasJ. . . . GleesonM. (2016). The effect of 14 weeks of vitamin D3 supplementation on antimicrobial peptides and proteins in athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences 346774. PubMed ID: 25861808 doi:10.1080/02640414.2015.1033642

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HolickM.F. & ChenT.C. (2008). Vitamin D deficiency: A worldwide problem with health consequences. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 871080S1086S. PubMed ID: 18400738 doi:10.1093/ajcn/87.4.1080S

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Institute of Medicine. (2011). Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

  • JastrzebskaM.KaczmarczykM. & JastrzebskiZ. (2016). Effect of vitamin D supplementation on training adaptation in well-trained soccer players. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 3026482655. PubMed ID: 26808860 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001337

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JavadianY.AdabiM.HeidariB.BabaeiM.FirouzjahiA.GhahhariB.Y. & Hajian-TilakiK. (2017). Quadriceps muscle strength correlates with serum vitamin D and knee pain in knee osteoarthritis. Clinical Journal of Pain 336770. PubMed ID: 26889621 doi:10.1097/AJP.0000000000000358

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JungH.C.LeeS.SeoM.W. & SongJ.K. (2017). Isokinetic assessment of agonist and antagonist strength ratios in collegiate taekwondo athletes: A preliminary study. Sport Sciences for Health 13175181. doi:10.1007/s11332-016-0337-2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KatoT.TerashimaT.YamashitaT.HatanakaY.HondaA. & UmemuraY. (2006). Effect of low-repetition jump training on bone mineral density in young women. Journal of Applied Physiology 100839843. PubMed ID: 16269526 doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00666.2005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KooT.K. & LiM.Y. (2016). A guideline of selecting and reporting intra-class correlation coefficients for reliability research. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine 15155163. PubMed ID: 27330520 doi:10.1016/j.jcm.2016.02.012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KoundourakisN.E.AndroulakisN.E.MalliarakiN. & MargiorisA.N. (2014). Vitamin D and exercise performance in professional soccer players. PloS ONE 9e101659. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0101659.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Larson-MeyerD.E. & WillisK.S. (2010). Vitamin D and athletes. Current Sports Medicine Reports 9220226. PubMed ID: 20622540 doi:10.1249/JSR.0b013e3181e7dd45

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LovellG. (2008). Vitamin D status of females in an elite gymnastics program. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 18159161. PubMed ID: 18332692 doi:10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181650eee

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MonksL.SeoM.W.KimH.B.JungH.C. & SongJ.K. (2017). High intensity interval training and athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 5712521260. PubMed ID: 28085127

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MortonJ.P.IqbalZ.DrustB.BurgessD.CloseG.L. & BruknerP.D. (2012). Seasonal variation in vitamin D status in professional soccer players of the English Premier League. Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 37798802. doi:10.1139/h2012-037.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MuirS.W. & Montero-OdassoM. (2011). Effect of vitamin D supplementation on muscle strength, gait and balance in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 5922912300. PubMed ID: 22188076 doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03733.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NikolaidisP.T.ChtourouH.Torres-LuqueG.TasiopoulosI.G.HellerJ. & PaduloJ. (2015). Effect of a six-week preparation period on acute physiological responses to a simulated combat in young national-level taekwondo athletes. Journal of Human Kinetics 47115125. PubMed ID: 26557196 doi:10.1515/hukin-2015-0067

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RebolledoB.J.BernardJ.A.WernerB.C.FinlayA.K.NwachukwuB.U.DareD.M. . . . RodeoS.A. (2018). The association of vitamin D status in lower extremity muscle strains and core muscle injuries at the National Football League Combine. Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 34(4):12801285. doi:10.1016/j.arthro.2017.10.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RuoholaJ.P.LaaksiI.YlikomiT.HaatajaR.MattilaV.M.SahiT. . . . PihlajamaäkiH. (2006). Association between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and bone stress fractures in Finnish young men. Journal of Bone Mineral Research 2114831488. PubMed ID: 16939407 doi:10.1359/jbmr.060607

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SatoY.IwamotoJ.KanokoT. & SatohK. (2005). Low-dose vitamin D prevents muscular atrophy and reduces falls and hip fractures in women after stroke: A randomized controlled trial. Cerebrovascular Disease 20187192. doi:10.1159/000087203

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SeoM.W.JungH.C.SongJ.K. & KimH.B. (2015). Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation 11101107. PubMed ID: 25960983 doi:10.12965/jer.150196

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SollidS.T.HutchinsonM.Y.FuskevågO.M.JoakimsenR.M. & JordeR. (2016). Large individual differences in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response to vitamin D supplementation: Effects of genetic factors, body mass index, and baseline concentration. Results from a randomized controlled trial. Hormone and Metabolic Research 482734. PubMed ID: 25702786

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StocktonK.MengersenK.ParatzJ.D.KandiahD. & BennellK.L. (2011). Effect of vitamin D supplementation on muscle strength: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Osteoporosis International 22859871. PubMed ID: 20924748

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VälimäkiV.V.AlfthanH.LehmuskallioE.LoäyttyniemiE.SahiT.StenmanU.H. . . . VälimäkiM.J. (2004). Vitamin D status as a determinant of peak bone mass in young Finnish men. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 897680. doi:10.1210/jc.2003-030817

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WardK.A.DasG.BerryJ.L.RobertsS.A.RawerR.AdamsJ.E. & MughalZ. (2009). Vitamin D status and muscle function in post-menarcheal adolescent girls. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism 94559563. PubMed ID: 19033372 doi:10.1210/jc.2008-1284

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WoodT.M. & ZhuW. (2006). Measurement theory and practice in kinesiology (pp. 2852). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  • WyonM.A.KoutedakisY.WolmanR.NevillA.M. & AllenN. (2014). The influence of winter vitamin D supplementation on muscle function and injury occurrence in elite ballet dancers: A controlled study. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 17812. PubMed ID: 23619160 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2013.03.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WyonM.A.WolmanR.NevillA.M.CloakR.MetsiosG.S.GouldD. . . . KoutedakisY. (2016). Acute effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on muscle strength in judoka athletes: A randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 26279284. PubMed ID: 26535872 doi:10.1097/JSM.0000000000000264

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 150 150 56
Full Text Views 20 20 3
PDF Downloads 12 12 2
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar
Cited By