Contextualizing Parasympathetic Hyperactivity in Functionally Overreached Athletes With Perceptions of Training Tolerance

in International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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Heart-rate variability (HRV) as a measure of autonomic function may increase in response to training interventions leading to increases or decreases in performance, making HRV interpretation difficult in isolation. This study aimed to contextualize changes in HRV with subjective measures of training tolerance.


Supine and standing measures of vagally mediated HRV (root-mean-square difference of successive normal RR intervals [RMSSD]) and measures of training tolerance (Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes questionnaire, perception of energy levels, fatigue, and muscle soreness) were recorded daily during 1 wk of light training (LT), 2 wk of heavy training (HT), and 10 d of tapering (T) in 15 male runners/triathletes. HRV and training tolerance were analyzed as rolling 7-d averages at LT, HT, and T. Performance was assessed after LT, HT, and T with a 5-km treadmill time trial (5TTT).


Time to complete the 5TTT likely increased after HT (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval = 0.16 ± 0.06) and then almost certainly decreased after T (ES = −0.34 ± 0.08). Training tolerance worsened after HT (ES ≥ 1.30 ± 0.41) and improved after T (ES ≥ 1.27 ± 0.49). Standing RMSSD very likely increased after HT (ES = 0.62 ± 0.26) and likely remained higher than LT at the completion of T (ES = 0.38 ± 0.21). Changes in supine RMSSD were possible or likely trivial.


Vagally mediated HRV during standing increased in response to functional overreaching (indicating potential parasympathetic hyperactivity) and also to improvements in performance. Thus, additional measures such as training tolerance are required to interpret changes in vagally mediated HRV.

Bellenger, Thomson, Davison, and Buckley are with the Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia. Karavirta is with Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland. Robertson is with the South Australian Sports Inst, Adelaide, Australia.

Address author correspondence to Clint Bellenger at