Hydration Status in Adolescent Judo Athletes Before and After Training in the Heat

in International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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Adolescent judo athletes who train in tropical climates may be in a persistent state of dehydration because they frequently restrict fluids during daily training sessions to maintain or reduce their body weight and are not given enough opportunities to drink.

Purpose:

Determine the body hydration status of adolescent judo athletes before, immediately after, and 24 h after (24H) a training session and document sweat Na+ loss and symptoms of dehydration.

Methods:

Body mass and urine color and specific gravity (USG) were measured before, after, and 24 h after a training session in a high-heat-stress environment (29.5 ± 1.0°C; 77.7 ± 6.1% RH) in 24 adolescent athletes. Sweat sodium loss was also determined. A comparison was made between mid-pubertal (MP) and late pubertal (LP) subjects.

Results:

The majority of the subjects started training with a significant level of dehydration. During the training session, MP subjects lost 1.3 ± 0.8% of their pretraining body mass whereas LP subjects lost 1.9 ± 0.5% (P < .05). Sweat sodium concentration was 44.5 ± 23.3 mmol/L. Fluid intake from a water fountain was minimal. Subjects reported symptoms of dehydration during the session, which in some cases persisted throughout the night and the next day. The 24H USG was 1.028 ± 0.004 and 1.027 ± 0.005 g/mL for MP and LP, respectively.

Conclusions:

Adolescent judo athletes arrive to practice with a fluid deficit, do not drink enough during training, and experience symptoms of dehydration, which may compromise the quality of training and general well-being.

Anita M. Rivera-Brown and Roberto A. De Félix-Dávila are with the Center for Sports Health and Exercise Sciences at the Albergue Olímpico, Department of Physical Medicine, Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, San Juan, Puerto Rico.