Golf shots off uneven terrain often require modifications in address position to complete the swing successfully. This study aimed to determine how golf players coordinate the legs to regulate linear and angular impulse (about an axis passing vertically through the center of mass) while modifying the lower-extremity address position during the swing. Nine highly skilled golf players performed swings with a 6-iron under the Normal, Rear Leg Up, and Target Leg Up conditions. Components of linear and angular impulse generated by the rear and target legs (resultant horizontal reaction force, resultant horizontal reaction force angle, and moment arm) were quantified and compared across the group and within a player (α = .05). Net angular impulse did not change between conditions. Target leg angular impulse was greater in the Target Leg Up condition than Rear Leg Up condition. Regulation of linear and angular impulse generation occurred while increasing stance width and redirecting resultant horizontal reaction forces to be more parallel to the target line under modified address positions. Net linear impulse perpendicular to the target was near 0 or slightly posterior. Net linear impulse parallel to the target was less toward the target in the Target Leg Up condition compared with Normal and Rear Leg Up conditions. These results indicate individuals utilized player-specific mechanisms to coordinate the legs and regulate impulse generation during the golf swing under modified address positions.
Peterson is with the Department of Exercise Science, California Lutheran University, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA. McNitt-Gray is with the Departments of Biological Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.