The Effects of Walking or Nordic Walking in Adults 50 Years and Older at Elevated Risk of Fractures: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

in Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $77.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $103.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $147.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $196.00

Walking is a common activity among older adults. However, the effects of walking on health-related outcomes in people with low bone mineral density (BMD) are unknown. The authors included randomized controlled trials comparing walking to control in individuals aged ≥50 years with low BMD and at risk of fractures. The authors identified 13 randomized controlled trials: nine multicomponent interventions including walking, one that was walking only, and three Nordic walking trials. Most studies had a high risk of bias. Nordic walking may improve the Timed Up-and-Go values (1.39 s, 95% CI [1.00, 1.78], very low certainty). Multicomponent interventions including walking improved the 6-min walk test (39.37 m, 95% CI [21.83, 56.91], very low certainty) and lumbar spine BMD (0.01 g/cm2, 95% CI [0.00, 0.03], low certainty evidence). The effects on quality of life or femoral neck BMD were not significant. There were insufficient data on fractures, falls, or mortality. Nordic walking may improve physical functioning. The effects on other outcomes are less certain; one may need to combine walking with other exercises to be of benefit.

Rodrigues, Ponzano, and Giangregorio are with the Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Butt and Bardai are with the Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Bartley is with the Canadian Osteoporosis Patient Network, Osteoporosis Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Ashe is with the Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Chilibeck is with the College of Kinesiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Thabane is with the Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Wark is with the University of Melbourne Department of Medicine, Melbourne, Australia; and Bone & Mineral Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia. Giangregorio is also with the Schlegel Research Chair in Mobility and Aging, Research Institute for Aging, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Giangregorio (lora.giangregorio@uwaterloo.ca) is corresponding author.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Material 1 (pdf 655 KB)
    • Supplementary Material 2 (pdf 496 KB)
  • Atkins, D., Best, D., Briss, P., Eccles, M., Falck-Ytter, Y., Flottorp, S., … Jaeschke, R. (2004). Grading quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. British Medical Journal, 328(7454), 1490. PubMed ID: 15205295 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barker, K.L., Javaid, M.K., Newman, M., Minns Lowe, C., Stallard, N., Campbell, H., … Lamb, S. (2014). Physiotherapy Rehabilitation for Osteoporotic Vertebral Fracture (PROVE): Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials, 15(1), 22. PubMed ID: 24422876 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barker, K.L., Newman, M., Stallard, N., Leal, J., Lowe, C.M., Javaid, M.K., … Lamb, S. (2019). Exercise or manual physiotherapy compared with a single session of physiotherapy for osteoporotic vertebral fracture: Three-arm PROVE RCT. Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England), 23(44), 1318. PubMed ID: 31456562 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berard, A., Bravo, G., & Gauthier, P. (1997). Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of physical activity for the prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis International, 7(4), 331337. PubMed ID: 9373566 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berg, W.R., Alessio, H.M., Mills, E.M., & Chen, T.O.N.G. (1997). Circumstances and consequences of falls in independent community-dwelling older adults. Age and Ageing, 26(4), 261268. PubMed ID: 9271288 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bergström, I., Landgren, B., Brinck, J., & Freyschus, B. (2008). Physical training preserves bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with forearm fractures and low bone mineral density. Osteoporosis International, 19(2), 177183. PubMed ID: 17768587 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bravo, G., Gauthier, P., Roy, P., Payette, F.H., Gaulin, P., Harvey, M., … Dubois, M. (1996). Impact of a 12-month exercise program on the physical and psychological health of osteopenic women. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 44(7), 756762. PubMed ID: 8675921 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, J.P., Josse, R.G., & Advisory, S. (2002). 2002 clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in Canada. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 167(suppl 10), S1S34. PubMed ID: 12427685

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carter, D.R., & Spengler, D.M. (1978). Mechanical properties and compsoition of cortical bone. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 135, 192217.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Center, J., Nguyen, T., Schneider, D., Sambrook, P., & Eisman, J. (2010). Mortality after all major types of osteoporotic fracture in men and women: An observational study. Lancet, 353(9156), 878882. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng, J.Z., Haibing, H., Chen, Y., & Kai, L. (2016). Effect of aerobic exercise and raloxifene combination therapy on senile osteoporosis. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 28(6), 17911794. PubMed ID: 27390417 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark, R.E., McArthur, C., Papaioannou, A., Cheung, A.M., Laprade, J., Lee, L., … Giangregorio, L.M. (2017). “I do not have time. Is there a handout I can use?”: Combining physicians’ needs and behavior change theory to put physical activity evidence into practice. Osteoporosis International, 28(6), 19531963. PubMed ID: 28413842 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cook, D., Guyatt, G., Adachi, J.D., Epstein, R.S., Juniper, E., Health, E., … Rosen, C.J. (2015). Development and validation of the mini-osteoporosis quality of life questionnaire (OQLO) in osteoporotic women with back pain due to vertebral fractures. Osteoporosis International, 10(3), 207213. PubMed ID: 10525712 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cornell, J.E., Mulrow, C.D., Localio, R., Stack, C.B., Meibohm, A.R., Guallar, E., & Goodman, S.N. (2014). Random-effects meta-analysis of inconsistent effects: A time for change. Annals of Internal Medicine, 160(4), 267270. PubMed ID: 24727843 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ebrahim, S., Thompson, P.D., Baskaran, V., & Evans, K. (1997). Randomized placebo-controlled trial of brisk walking in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Age and Ageing, 26(4), 253260. PubMed ID: 9271287 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faulkner, K.G., Cummings, S.R., Black, D., Palermo, L., Gluer, C., & Genant, H.K. (1993). Simple measurement of femoral geometry predicts hip fracture: The study of osteoporotic fractures. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 8(10), 12111217. PubMed ID: 8256658 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feskanich, D., Willett, W., & Colditz, G. (2002). Walking and leisure-time activity and risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 288(18), 23002306. PubMed ID: 12425707 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Figueiredo, S., Finch, L., Mai, J., Ahmed, S., Huang, A., & Mayo, N. (2013). Nordic walking for geriatric rehabilitation: A randomized pilot trial. Disability and Rehabilitation, 35(12), 968975. PubMed ID: 23066879 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Giangregorio, L.M., Papaioannou, A., MacIntyre, N.J., Ashe, M.C., Heinonen, A., Shipp, K., … Cheung, A.M. (2014). Too fit to fracture: Exercise recommendations for individuals with osteoporosis or osteoporotic vertebral fracture. Osteoporosis International, 25(3), 821835. PubMed ID: 24281053 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haefeli, M., & Elfering, A. (2006). Pain assessment. European Spine Journal, 15(suppl 1), S17S24. PubMed ID: 16320034 doi:

  • Hansen, E.A., & Smith, G. (2009). Energy expenditure and comfort during nordic walking with different pole lengths. Journal of Strength of Conditioning Research, 23(4), 11871194. PubMed ID: 19528847 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Health Canada. (2016). Adverse reaction reporting for specific products. Government of Canada. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/media-room/advisories-warnings/adverse-reaction-reporting.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Howe, T., Shea, B., Dawson, L., Downie, F., Murray, A., Ross, C., … Creed, G. (2011). Exercise for preventing and treating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 7, 172. PubMed ID: 21735380 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Iwamoto, J., Takeda, T., & Ichimura, S. (2001). Effects of exercise training and detraining on BMD in post-menopausal women with osteoprosis. Journal of Orthopaedic Science, 6(2), 128132. PubMed ID: 11484097 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Iwamoto, J., Takeda, T., Otani, T., & Tbe, Y. (1998). Effect of increased physical activity on bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoportic women. Keio Journal of Medicine, 47(3), 157161. PubMed ID: 9785761 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kanis, J.A. (2002). Osteoporosis III: Diagnosis of osteoporosis and assessment of fracture risk. Lancet, 359(9321), 19291936. PubMed ID: 12057569 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kelley, G.A., Kelley, K.S., & Kohrt, W.M. (2012). Effects of ground and joint reaction force exercise on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 13(1), 1. PubMed ID: 22992273 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kellogg International Work Group on the Prevention of Falls by the Elderly. (1987). The prevention of falls in later life. A report of the Kellogg International Work Group on the Prevention of Falls by the Elderly. Danish Medical Bulletin, 34(suppl 4), 124. PubMed ID: 3595217

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kelly, P., Kahlmeier, S., Götschi, T., Orsini, N., Richards, J., Roberts, N., … Foster, C. (2014). Systematic review and meta-analysis of reduction in all-cause mortality from walking and cycling and shape of dose response relationship. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 11, 132. PubMed ID: 25344355 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kerr, J., Sallis, J.F., Saelens, B.E., Cain, K.L., Conway, T.L., Frank, L.D., & King, A.C. (2012). Outdoor physical activity and self rated health in older adults living in two regions of the US. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9(89), 912. PubMed ID: 22846594 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kimmel, D.B. (1982). A quantitative histologic study of bone turnover in young adult beagles. The Anatomical Record, 203(1), 3145. PubMed ID: 7103125 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klenk, J., Kerse, N., Rapp, K., Nikolaus, T., & Becker, C. (2015). Physical activity and different concepts of fall risk estimation in older people – results of the ActiFE-Ulm study. PLoS One, 10(6), e0129098. PubMed ID: 26058056 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kocur, P., Wiernicka, M., Wilski, M., Kaminska, E., Furmaniuk, L., Maslowska, M., & Lewandowski, J. (2015). Does Nordic walking improves the postural control and gait parameters of women between the age 65 and 74: A randomized trial. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27(12), 37333737. PubMed ID: 26834341 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kopperdahl, D.L., & Keaveny, T.M. (1998). Yield strain behavior of trabecular bone. Journal of Biomechanics, 31(7), 601608. PubMed ID: 9796682 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kunutsor, S.K., Leyland, S., Skelton, D.A., James, L., Cox, M., Gibbons, N., … Clark, E.M. (2018). Adverse events and safety issues associated with physical activity and exercise for adults with osteoporosis and osteopenia: A systematic review of observational studies and an updated review of interventional studies. Journal of Frailty, Sarcopenia and Falls, 3(4), 155178. PubMed ID: 32300705 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Madureira, M.M., Ciconelli, R.M., & Pereira, R.M. (2012). Quality of life measurements in patients with osteoporosis and fractures. Clinics (Sao Paulo), 67(11), 13151320. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mangione, K.K., Craik, R.L., Palombaro, K.M., Tomlinson, S.S., & Hofmann, M.T. (2010). Home-based leg-strengthening exercise improves function 1 year after hip fracture: A randomized controlled study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 58(10), 19111917. PubMed ID: 20929467 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mangione, K.K., Craik, R.L., Tomlinson, S.S., & Palombaro, K.M. (2005). Can elderly patients who have had a hip fracture perform moderate-to-high intensity exercise at home? Physical Therapy, 85(8), 727739. PubMed ID: 16048421 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marotti, G. (1975). Map of bone formation rate values recorded throughout the skeleton of the dog. In Z.F.G. Jaworski (Ed.), Bone morphometry (pp. 202207). Ottawa, Canada: University of Ottawa Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McArthur, C., Ziebart, C., Papaioannou, A., Cheung, A.M., Laprade, J., Lee, L., … Giangregorio, L.M. (2018). “We get them up, moving, and out the door. How do we get them to do what is recommended?” Using behaviour change theory to put exercise evidence into action for rehabilitation professionals. Archives of Osteoporosis, 13(1), 7. PubMed ID: 29372344 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meccariello, L., Muzii, V.F., Falzarano, G., & Medici, A. (2017). Dynamic corset versus three-point brace in the treatment of osteoporotic compression fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine: A prospective, comparative study. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 29(3), 443449. PubMed ID: 27386868 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Melton, L.I. (1995). How many women have osteoporosis now? Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 10(2), 175177. PubMed ID: 7754796 doi:

  • Midlands Nordic Walking. (n.d.). What is Nordic walking. Retrieved from https://www.midlandsnordicwalking.org/aboutnordicwalking

  • Morin, S.N., Djekic-Ivankovic, M., Funnell, L., Giangregorio, L., Rodrigues, I., Ridout, R., … Leslie, W.D. (2019). Patient engagement in clinical guidelines development: Input from > 1000 members of the Canadian Osteoporosis Patient Network. Osteoporosis International, 31(5), 867874. PubMed ID: 31838552 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nawrat-Szoltysik, A., Miodon, Z., Opara, J., Polak, A., Matyja, B., & Malecki, A. (2019). Effect of physical activity on the quality of life in osteoporotic females living in residential facilities: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, 42(2), 98104. PubMed ID: 30418340 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nawrat-Szoltysik, A., Polak, A., Malecki, A., Piejko, L., Grzybowska-Ganszczyk, D., Krecichwost, M., & Opara, J. (2018). Effect of physical activity on the sequelae of osteoporosis in female residents of residential care facilities. Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 27(5), 633642. PubMed ID: 29558034 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nguyen, T.V., Eisman, J.A., Kelly, P.J., & Sambrook, P.N. (1996). Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures in elderly men. American Journal of Epidemiology, 144(3), 255263. PubMed ID: 8686694 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nikander, R., Gagnon, C., Dunstan, D.W., Magliano, D.J., Ebeling, P.R., Lu, Z.X., … Daly, R.M. (2011). Frequent walking, but not total physical activity, is associated with increased fracture incidence: Prospective study (AusDiab). The Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 26(7), 16381647. PubMed ID: 21328475 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nilsson, J., & Thorstensson, A. (1989). Ground reaction forces at different speeds of human walking and running. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 136(2), 217227. PubMed ID: 2782094 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Obrant, K., Bengnér, U., Johnell, O., Nilsson, B., & Sernbo, I. (1989). Increasing age-adjusted risk of fragility fractures: A sign of increasing osteoporosis in successive generations? Calcified Tissue International, 44(3), 157167. PubMed ID: 2493320 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oja, P., Kelly, P., Murtagh, E.M., Murphy, M.H., Foster, C., & Titze, S. (2018). Effects of frequency, intensity, duration and volume of walking interventions on CVD risk factors: A systematic review and meta-regression analysis of randomised controlled trials among inactive healthy adults. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 52(12), 769775. PubMed ID: 29858464 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Olofsson, H., Jensevik, K., Larsson, S., Mallmin, H., Berglund, L., & Vessby, B. (2007). Leisure physical activity and the risk of fracture in men. PLoS Medicine, 4(6), e199. PubMed ID: 17579509 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ossowski, Z.M., Skrobot, W., Aschenbrenner, P., Cesnaitiene, V.J., & Smaruj, M. (2016). Effects of short-term nordic walking training on sarcopenia-related parameters in women with low bone mass: A preliminary study. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 11, 17631771. PubMed ID: 27942207 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Papaioannou, A., Adachi, J.D., Winegard, K., Ferko, N., Parkinson, W., Cook, R., Webber, C., & McCartney, N. (2003). Efficacy of home-based exercise for improving quality of life among elderly women with symptomatic osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures. Osteoporosis International, 14(8), 677682. PubMed ID: 12879220 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Papaioannou, A., Morin, S., Cheung, A.M., Atkinson, S., Brown, J., Feldman, S., … Leslie, W.D. (2010). 2010 clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in Canada: Summary. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 182(17), 18641873. PubMed ID: 20940232 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parkatti, T., Perttunen, J., & Wacker, P. (2012). Improvements in functional capacity from Nordic walking: A randomized-controlled trial among elderly people. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 20(1), 93105. PubMed ID: 21949243 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Public Health Agency of Canada. (2010). What is the impact of osteoporosis in Canada and what are Canadians doing to maintain healthy bones? Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/migration/phac-aspc/cd-mc/osteoporosis-osteoporose/pdf/osteoporosis.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rubin, C.T., & Lanyon, L.E. (1985). Regulation of bone mass by mechanical strain magnitude. Calcified Tissue International, 37(4), 411417. PubMed ID: 3930039 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sanudo, B., de Hoyo, M., del Pozo-Cruz, J., Carrasco, L., del Pozo-Cruz, B., Tejero, S., & Firth, E. (2017). A systematic review of the exercise effect on bone health: the importance of assessing mechanical loading in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Menopause, 24(10), 12081216. PubMed ID: 28538603 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sherrington, C., Fairhall, N., Wallbank, G., Tiedemann, A., Michaleff, Z., Howard, K., … Lamb, S. (2019). Exercise for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1(1), CD012424. PubMed ID: 30703272 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sherrington, C., Whitney, J.C., Lord, S.R., Herbert, R.D., Cumming, Ã.R.G., & Close, J.C.T. (2008). Effective exercise for the prevention of falls: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 56(12), 22342243. PubMed ID: 19093923 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smulders, E., Weerdesteyn, V., Groen, B.E., Duysens, J., Eijsbouts, A., Laan, R., & Van Lankveld, W. (2010). Efficacy of a short multidisciplinary falls prevention program for elderly persons with osteoporosis and a fall history. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 91(11), 17051711. PubMed ID: 21044715 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spinney, J. (2013). Aerobic activity preferences among older Canadians: A time use perspective. Canadian Journal on Aging, 32(4), 443451. PubMed ID: 24103314 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Takeshima, N., Islam, M., Rogers, M., Rogers, N., Sengoku, N., & Koizumi, D. (2013). Effects of nordic walking compared to conventional walking and band-based resistance exercise on fitness in older adults. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 12, 422430. PubMed ID: 24149147

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tinetti, M., Speechley, M., & Ginter, S. (1988). Risk factors for falls among elderly persons living in the community. New England Journal of Medicine, 319(26), 17011707. PubMed ID: 3205267 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Turner, C., & Robling, A. (2005). Exercises for improving bone strength. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(4), 188. PubMed ID: 15793082 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Varahra, A., Rodrigues, I.B., MacDermid, J.C., Bryant, D., . . . Birmingham, T. (2018). Exercise to improve functional outcomes in persons with osteoporosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Osteoporosis International, 29(2), 265286. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Watson, S.L., Weeks, B.K., Weis, L.J., Harding, A.T., Horan, S.A., & Beck, B.R. (2018). High-intensity resistance and impact training improves bone mineral density and physical function osteoporosis: The LIFTMOR randomized controlled. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 33(2), 211220. PubMed ID: 28975661 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weiner, S., & Wagner, H.D. (1998). The material bone: Structure–mechanical function relations. Annual Review of Materials Research, 28(1), 271298. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WHO. (2019). Health topics: Mortality. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/topics/mortality/en/

  • Ziebart, C., McArthur, C., Lee, L., Papaioannou, A., Laprade, J., Cheung, A.M., … Giangregorio, L. (2018). “Left to my own devices, I don’t know”: using theory and patient-reported barriers to move from physical activity recommendations to practice. Osteoporosis International, 29(5), 10811091. PubMed ID: 29441402 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 751 751 161
Full Text Views 13 13 4
PDF Downloads 11 11 3