What is the Contribution of Actual Motor Skill, Fitness, and Physical Activity to Children’s Self-Perception of Motor Competence?

in Journal of Motor Learning and Development
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $41.00

1 year subscription

USD $55.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $79.00

2 year subscription

USD $103.00

This study aimed to examine the contribution of objective measures of physical fitness (musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory), physical activity, and motor skill to motor perception. A total of 122 children (63 boys) aged 8–11 years were assessed. Independent t-tests assessed sex differences in all variables. Two linear mixed models adjusted for sex and age were performed with perceived object control and locomotor skills (Pictorial Scale of the Perceived Movement Skill Competence for Young Children) as outcomes. Aerobic (multi-stage fitness test) and muscular fitness (long jump, grip strength), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (ActiGraph accelerometry), movement skill (Test of Gross Motor Development-2), age, and sex were predictors. Boys had higher object control skills (actual and perceived) and fitness. Age (decreasing) and long jump distance (positive) explained 16% of locomotor skill perception variance. Sex (boys) explained 13% of object control skill perception variance. Children’s skill self-perception may be influenced by fitness attributes as these are more evident to them. The fact that girls have lower actual object control competence and fitness than boys suggests girls may be an intervention target.

Barnett is with the Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Health and Social Development, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Lubans is with the Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia. Timperio, Salmon, and Ridgers are with the Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Address author correspondence to Nicola D. Ridgers at nicky.ridgers@deakin.edu.au.
Journal of Motor Learning and Development
Article Sections
References
  • Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2013). 4364.0.55.004 – Australian Health Survey: Physical Activity 2011–12. Canberra: Author.

  • BabicM.J.MorganP.J.PlotnikoffR.C.LonsdaleC.WhiteR.L. & LubansD.R. (2014). Physical activity and physical self-concept in youth: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine 44(11) 15891601. PubMed ID: 25053012 doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0229-z

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BarnettL.M.LaiS.K.VeldmanS.L.C.HardyL.L.CliffD.P.MorganP.J.OkelyA.D. (2016). Correlates of gross motor competence in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine 46(11) 16631688. PubMed ID: 26894274 doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0495-z

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BarnettL.M.MintoC.LanderN. & HardyL.L. (2014). Interrater reliability assessment using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 17(6) 667670. PubMed ID: 24211133 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2013.09.013

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BarnettL.M.RidgersN.D.HeskethK. & SalmonJ. (2017). Setting them up for lifetime activity: Play competence perceptions and physical activity in young children. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 20(9) 856860.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BarnettL.M.RidgersN.D. & SalmonJ. (2015). Associations between young children’s perceived and actual ball skill competence and physical activity. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 18(2) 167171. PubMed ID: 24685052 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2014.03.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BarnettL.M.RidgersN.D.ZaskA. & SalmonJ. (2015). Face validity and reliability of a pictorial instrument for assessing fundamental movement skill perceived competence in young children. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 18(1) 98102. PubMed ID: 24485803 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2013.12.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BarnettL.M.RobinsonL.E.WebsterE.K. & RidgersN.D. (2015). Reliability of the pictorial scale of perceived movement skill competence in 2 diverse samples of young children. Journal of Physical Activity and Health 12(8) 10451051. PubMed ID: 25243542 doi:10.1123/jpah.2014-0141

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BarnettL.M.SalmonJ. & HeskethK.D. (2016). More active pre-school children have better motor competence at school starting age: An observational cohort study. BMC Public Health 16(1) 1068. PubMed ID: 27724941 doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3742-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BarnettL.M.StoddenD.CohenK.E.SmithJ.J.LubansD.R.LenoirM.MorganP.J. (2016). Fundamental movement skills: An important focus. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 35(3) 219225. doi:10.1123/jtpe.2014-0209

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BarnettL.M.van BeurdenE.MorganP.J.BrooksL.O. & BeardJ.R. (2008). Does childhood motor skill proficiency predict adolescent fitness? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 40(12) 21372144. PubMed ID: 18981934 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818160d3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BarnettL.M.van BeurdenE.MorganP.J.BrooksL.O. & BeardJ.R. (2009). Childhood motor skill proficiency as a predictor of adolescent physical activity. Journal of Adolescent Health 44(3) 252259. PubMed ID: 19237111 doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.07.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BarnettL.M.VazouS.AbbottG.BoweS.J.RobinsonL.E.RidgersN.D. & SalmonJ. (2016). Construct validity of the pictorial scale of perceived movement skill competence. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 22294302. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.09.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BarnettL.M.ZaskA.RoseL.HughesD. & AdamsJ. (2015). Three-year follow-up of an early childhood intervention: What about physical activity and weight status? Journal of Physical Activity and Health 12(3) 319321. PubMed ID: 24809753 doi:10.1123/jpah.2013-0419

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CainK.SallisJ.ConwayT.Van DyckD. & CalhoonL. (2013). Using accelerometers in youth physical activity studies: A review of methods. Journal of Physical Activity and Health 10437450. PubMed ID: 23620392 doi:10.1123/jpah.10.3.437

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Castro-PineroJ.OrtegaF.B.ArteroE.G.Girela-RejonM.J.MoraJ.SjostromM. & RuizJ.R. (2010). Assessing muscular strength in youth: Usefulness of standing long jump as a general index of muscular fitness. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 24(7) 18101817. PubMed ID: 20555277 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181ddb03d

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CohenK.E.MorganP.J.PlotnikoffR.C.BarnettL.M. & LubansD.R. (2015). Improvements in fundamental movement skill competency mediate the effect of the SCORES intervention on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children. Journal of Sports Sciences 33(18) 19081918. PubMed ID: 25716899 doi:10.1080/02640414.2015.1017734

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ColeT.J. & LobsteinT. (2012). Extended international (IOTF) body mass index cut-offs for thinness, overweight and obesity. Pediatric Obesity 7(4) 284294. PubMed ID: 22715120 doi:10.1111/j.2047-6310.2012.00064.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EatherN.MorganP.J. & LubansD.R. (2011). Improving health-related fitness in children: The Fit-4-Fun randomized controlled trial study protocol. BMC Public Health 11902. PubMed ID: 22142435 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-902

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • España-RomeroV.OrtegaF.B.Vicente-RodríguezG.ArteroE.G.ReyJ.P. & RuizJ.R. (2010). Elbow position affects handgrip strength in adolescents: Validity and reliability of Jamar, DynEx, and TKK dynamometers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 24(1) 272277. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b296a5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FoxK.R. & CorbinC.B. (1990). The physical self-perception profile manual. PRN monograph. DeKalb, IL: University Office for Health Promotion, Northern Illinois.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FreedsonP.PoberD. & JanzK. (2005). Calibration of accelerometer output for children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 37(11 suppl) 523530. doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000185658.28284.ba

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GabelL.RidgersN.D.Della GattaP.A.ArundellL.CerinE.RobinsonS.SalmonJ. (2016). Associations of sedentary time patterns and TV viewing time with inflammatory and endothelial biomarkers in children. Pediatric Obesity 11194201. PubMed ID: 26097139 doi:10.1111/ijpo.12045

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GallahueD.L.OzmunJ.C. & GoodwayJ. (2012). Understanding motor development: Infants children adolescents adults (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HarterS. (1982). The perceived competence scale for children. Child Development 538797. doi:10.2307/1129640

  • HarterS. (1987). The determinants and mediational role of global self-worth in children. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.) Contemporary topics in developmental psychology (pp. 219242). New York, NY: Wiley.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HarterS. (2003). The development of self-perception during childhood and adolescence. In M.R. Leary & J.P. Tangney (Eds.) Handbook of self and identity (pp. 610642). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Institute of Medicine. (2012). Fitness measures and health outcomes in youth. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

  • LeGearM.GreylingL.SloanE.BellR.WilliamsB.-L.NaylorP.-J. & TempleV.A. (2012). A window of opportunity? Motor skills and perception of competence of children in Kindergarten. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 9(1) 29. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-9-29.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LiongG.H.E.RidgersN.D. & BarnettL.M. (2015). Associations between skill perception and young children’s actual fundamental movement skills. Perceptual and Motor Skills 120(2) 591603. PubMed ID: 25706343 doi:10.2466/10.25.PMS.120v18x2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LopesV.P.BarnettL.M. & RodriguesL.P. (2016). Is there an association among actual motor competence, perceived motor competence, physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschool children? Journal of Motor Learning and Development 4(2) 129141. doi:10.1123/jmld.2015-0012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LopesV.P.BarnettL.M.SaraivaL.GoncalvesC.BoweS.J.AbbottG. & RodriguesL.P. (2016). Validity and reliability of a pictorial instrument for assessing perceived motor competence in Portuguese children. Child: Care Health and Development 42(5) 666674. doi:10.1111/cch.12359

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LubansD.R.MorganP.J.CliffD.P.BarnettL.M. & OkelyA.D. (2010). Fundamental movement skills in children and adolescents: Review of associated health benefits. Sports Medicine 40(12) 10191035. PubMed ID: 21058749 doi:10.2165/11536850-000000000-00000

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGraneB.BeltonS.PowellD.WoodsC.B. & IssartelJ. (2016). Physical self-confidence levels of adolescents: Scale reliability and validity. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 19(7) 563567. PubMed ID: 26197942 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2015.07.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MouratidisA.VansteenkisteM.LensW. & SideridisG. (2008). The motivating role of positive feedback in sport and physical education: Evidence for a motivational model. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 30(2) 240268. PubMed ID: 18490793 doi:10.1123/jsep.30.2.240

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RidgersN.D.BarnettL.M.LubansD.R.TimperioA.CerinE. & SalmonJ. (2018). Potential moderators of day-to-day variability in children's physical activity patterns. Journal of Sports Sciences 36637644.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RidgersN.D.FazeyD.M.A. & FaircloughS.J. (2007). Perception of athletic competence and fear of negative evaluation during physical education. British Journal of Educational Psychology 77339349. PubMed ID: 17504551 doi:10.1348/026151006X128909

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RobinsonL.E. (2010). The relationship between perceived physical competence and fundamental motor skills in preschool children. Child: Care Health and Development 37(4) 589596.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RobinsonL.E.StoddenD.F.BarnettL.M.LopesV.P.LoganS.W.RodriguesL.P. & D’HontE. (2015). Motor competence and its effect on positive developmental trajectories of health. Sports Medicine 45(9) 12731284. PubMed ID: 26201678 doi:10.1007/s40279-015-0351-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ShavelsonR.J.HubnerJ.J. & StantonG.C. (1976). Self-concept: Validation of construct interpretations. Review of Educational Research 46(3) 407441. doi:10.3102/00346543046003407

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SlykermanS.RidgersN.D.StevensonC. & BarnettL.M. (2016). How important is young children’s actual and perceived movement skill competence to their physical activity? Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 19(6) 488492. PubMed ID: 26232866 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2015.07.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SmithJ.J.EatherN.MorganP.J.PlotnikoffR.C.FaigenbaumA.D. & LubansD.R. (2014). The health benefits of muscular fitness for children and adolescents: A systematicreview and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine 44(9) 12091223. PubMed ID: 24788950 doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0196-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StoddenD.F.GaoZ.LangendorferS.J. & GoodwayJ.D. (2014). Dynamic relationships between motor skill competence and health-related fitness in youth. Pediatric Exercise Science 26(3) 231241. PubMed ID: 25111159 doi:10.1123/pes.2013-0027

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StoddenD.F.GoodwayJ.D.LangendorferS.J.RobertonM.A.RudisallM.E.GarciaC. & GarciaL.E. (2008). A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: An emergent relationship. Quest 60(2) 290306. doi:10.1080/00336297.2008.10483582

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TomkinsonG.R.LangJ.J.TremblayM.S.DaleM.LeBlancA.G.BelangerK.LégerL. (2016). International normative 20 m shuttle run values from 1 142 026 children and youth representing 50 countries. British Journal of Sports Medicine 51(21) 15451554. PubMed ID: 27208067 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2016-095987

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TrostS.G.LoprinziP.MoreeR. & PfeifferK. (2011). Comparison of accelerometer cut points in predicting activity intensity in youth. Medicine & Science in Sports and Exercise 43(7) 13601368. PubMed ID: 21131873 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e318206476e

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TrostS.G.WardD.S.MooreheadS.M.WatsonP.D.RinerW. & BurkeJ.R. (1998). Validity of the computer science and applications (CSA) activity monitor in children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 30629633. PubMed ID: 9565947 doi:10.1097/00005768-199804000-00023

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • UlrichD.A. (2000). Test of gross motor development (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed Inc.

  • VlahovE.BaghurstT.M. & MwavitaM. (2014). Preschool motor development predicting high school health-related physical fitness: A prospective study. Perceptual and Motor Skills 119(1) 279291. PubMed ID: 25153755 doi:10.2466/10.25.PMS.119c16z8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 29 26 2
Full Text Views 2 2 0
PDF Downloads 2 2 0
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar
Cited By