The Effectiveness of Two Interventions on Fundamental Movement Skill Proficiency Among a Cohort of Irish Primary School Children

in Journal of Motor Learning and Development
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $41.00

1 year subscription

USD $55.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $79.00

2 year subscription

USD $103.00

This study examined the effectiveness of a physical activity (Year 1) and a multicomponent fundamental movement skill (FMS) (Year 2) intervention on primary school children’s FMS proficiency. Data were collected from 6- and 10-year-old cohorts from two intervention schools and age-matched groups from one control school, in south Ireland. In Year 1 (N = 187), intervention (n = 96) and control (n = 91) groups were children from senior infant (6-year-old cohort) and 4th class (10-year-old cohort). In Year 2 (N = 357), intervention (n = 195) and control (n = 162) groups were children from senior infant and 1st class (6-year-old cohort) and 4th and 5th classes (10-year-old cohort). FMS assessment was conducted across both academic years, using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Linear mixed models were used to investigate the effectiveness of each intervention, adjusting for age group. Following Year 1, the intervention group significantly improved locomotor proficiency (p < .05), with no changes in object-control or overall proficiency. No group-time interactions were found. Following Year 2, the intervention group significantly improved locomotor, object-control, and overall proficiency (p < .001). Group-time interaction effects were found for both subsets and overall FMS in favor of the intervention group (p < .001). FMS proficiency among primary school children was significantly greater following the multicomponent FMS intervention.

L.E. Bolger, L.A. Bolger, O’Neill, Coughlan, and Burns are with the Department of Sport, Leisure, and Childhood Studies; Lacey is with the Department of Mathematics; Cork Institute of Technology, Cork, Ireland. O’Brien is with the School of Education, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Lisa E. Bolger (lisa.bolger@mycit.ie) is corresponding author.
Journal of Motor Learning and Development
Article Sections
References
  • Active Healthy Kids Australia. (2014). Is sport enough? The 2014 report card on physical activity for children and young people. Adelaide, South Australia: Author.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BakhtiarS. (2014). Fundamental motor skill among 6-year-old children in Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia. Asian Social Science 10(5) 155158. doi:10.5539/ass.v10n5p155

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BardidF.HuybenF.LenoirM.SeghersJ.De MartelaerK.GoodwayJ.D. & DeconinckF.J.A. (2016). Assessing fundamental motor skills in Belgian children aged 3–8 years highlights differences to US reference sample. Acta Paediatrica International Journal of Paediatrics 105(6) 281290. doi:10.1111/apa.13380

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BarnettL.M.StoddenD.CohenK.E.SmithJ.J.LubansD.R.LenoirM.MorganP.J. (2016). Fundamental movement skills: An important focus. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 35(3) 219225. doi:10.1123/jtpe.2014-0209

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BarnettL.M.van BeurdenE.MorganP.J.BrooksL.O. & BeardJ.R. (2009). Childhood motor skill proficiency as a predictor of adolescent physical activity. Journal of Adolescent Health 44252259. PubMed ID: 19237111 doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.07.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BarnettL.M.van BeurdenE.MorganP.J.BrooksL.O. & BeardJ.R. (2010). Gender differences in motor skill proficiency from childhood to adolescence: A longitudinal study. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 81(2) 162170. PubMed ID: 20527301 doi:10.1080/02701367.2010.10599663

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BeltonS.O’ BrienW.MeeganS.WoodsC. & IssartelJ. (2014). Youth-physical activity towards health: Evidence and background to the development of the Y-PATH physical activity intervention for adolescents. BMC Public Health 14(122) 112. Retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/14/122

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BolgerL.E.BolgerL.A.O’ NeillC.CoughlanE.O’BrienW.LaceyS. & BurnsC. (2018). Age and sex differences in fundamental movement skills among a cohort of Irish school children. Journal of Motor Learning and Development6(1) 81100. doi:10.1123/jmld.2017-0003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BrantaC.HaubenstrickerJ. & SeefeldtV. (1984). Age changes in motor skills during childhood and adolescence. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 12467520. PubMed ID: 6734680 doi:10.1249/00003677-198401000-00015

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BurrowsE.J.KeatsM.R. & KolenA.M. (2014). Contributions of after school programs to the development of fundamental movement skills in children. International Journal of Exercise Science 7(3) 236249. PubMed ID: 27293501

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CattuzzoM.T.dos Santos HenriqueR.A.H.N.de OliveiraI.S.MeloB.M.de Sousa MouraM.StoddenD. (2016). Motor competence and health related physical fitness in youth: A systematic review. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 19(2) 123129. PubMed ID: 25554655 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2014.12.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ClarkJ.E. (2005). From the beginning: A developmental perspective on movement and mobility. Quest 57(1) 3745. doi:10.1080/00336297.2005.10491841

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CliffD.P.OkelyA.D.SmithL.M. & McKeenK. (2009). Relationships between fundamental movement skills and objectively measured physical activity in preschool children. Pediatric Exercise Science 21(4) 436449. PubMed ID: 20128363 doi:10.1123/pes.21.4.436

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CohenK.E.MorganP.J.PlotnikoffR.C.CallisterR. & LubansD.R. (2015). Physical activity and skills intervention: SCORES cluster randomized controlled trial. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise 47(4) 765774. PubMed ID: 25051389 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000452

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ColeT.J.BellizziM.C.FlegalK.M. & DietzW.H. (2000). Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ 32012401240. PubMed ID: 10797032 doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7244.1240

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CoppingerT.LaceyS.O’NeillC. & BurnsC. (2016). “Project Spraoi”: A randomized control trial to improve nutrition and physical activity in school children. Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications 394101. PubMed ID: 29736461 doi:10.1016/j.conctc.2016.04.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Department of Education and Skills. (2017). A guide to the Irish education system. Retrieved from https://www.education.ie/en/Parents/Information/A-Guide-to-the-Irish-Education-System.pdf.

    • Export Citation
  • European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice. (2013). Physical education and sport at school in Europe Eurydice report. Luxembourg, Europe: Publication Office of the European Union.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GallahueD.L.OzmunJ.C. & GoodwayJ.D. (2012). Understanding motor development: Infants children adolescents adults (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GrahamD.AppletonS.RushE.McLennanS.ReedP. & SimmonsD. (2008). Increasing activity and improving nutrition through a schools-based programme: Project Energize. 1. Design, programme, randomisation and evaluation methodology. Public Health Nutrition 11(10) 10761084. PubMed ID: 18194586 doi:10.1017/S136898000700153X

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HaapalaE.A. (2013). Cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills in relation to cognition and academic performance in children: A review. Journal of Human Kinetics 36(1) 5568. doi:10.2478/hukin-2013-0006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HardyL.L.KingL.FarrellL.MacnivenR. & HowlettS. (2010). Fundamental movement skills among Australian preschool children. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 13(5) 503508. PubMed ID: 19850520 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2009.05.010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HolfelderB. & SchottN. (2014). Relationship of fundamental movement skills and physical activity in children and adolescents: A systematic review. Psychology Sport Exercise 15(4) 382391. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.03.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JohnstoneA.HughesA.R.JanssenX. & ReillyJ.J. (2017). Pragmatic evaluation of the Go2Play active play intervention on physical activity and fundamental movement skills in children. Preventive Medicine Reports 75863. PubMed ID: 28593124 doi:10.1016/j.pmedr.2017.05.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KellyC.GavinA.MolchoM. & Nic GabhainnS. (2012). The Irish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2010. Dublin and Galway: Department of Health and National University of Ireland, Galway.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KhodaverdiF. & BahramA. (2015). Relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity in girls. Annals of Applied Sport Science 3(2) 4350. doi:10.18869/acadpub.aassjournal.3.2.43

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KimmS.Y.S.GlynnN.W.KriskaA.M.BartonB.A.KronsbergS.S.DanielsS.R.LiuK. (2002). Decline in physical activity in black girls and white girls during adolescence. New England Journal of Medicine 347(10) 709715. PubMed ID: 12213941 doi:10.1056/NEJMoa003277

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KriemlerS.MeyerU.MartinE.van SluijsE.M.AnderseL.B. & MartinB.W. (2011). Effect of school-based interventions on physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents: A review of reviews and systematic update. British Journal of Sports Medicine 45(11) 923930. PubMed ID: 21836176 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2011-090186

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LanderN.EatherN.MorganP.J.SalmonJ. & BarnettL.M. (2017). Characteristics of teacher training in school-based physical education interventions to improve fundamental movement skills and/or physical activity: A systematic review. Sports Medicine 47(1) 135161. PubMed ID: 27294354 doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0561-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LoganS.W.RobinsonL.E.WilsonA.E. & LucasW.A. (2011). Getting the fundamentals of movement: A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of motor skill interventions in children. Child: Care Health and Development 38(3) 305315. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2011.01307.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LopesV.P.RodriguesL.P.MaiaJ.A.R. & MalinaR.M. (2011). Motor coordination as predictor of physical activity in childhood. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sport 21(5) 663669. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01027.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LubansD.R.MorganP.J.CliffD.P.BarnettL.M. & OkelyA.D. (2010). Fundamental movement skills in children and adolescents: Review of associated health benefits. Sports Medicine 40(12) 10191035. PubMed ID: 21058749 doi:10.2165/11536850-000000000-00000

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MalinaR.M. (1990). Tracking of physical fitness and performance during growth. In G. BuenenJ.G. HesquiereT. Reybrouck & A.L. Claessens (Eds.) Children and exercise (pp. 110). Stuttgart, Germany: Ferdinand Enke.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McKenzieT.L.SallisJ.F.BroylesS.L.ZiveM.M.NaderP.R.BerryC.C. & BrennanJ.J. (2002). Childhood movement skills: Predictors of physical activity in Anglo American and Mexican American adolescents? Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 73(3) 238244. PubMed ID: 12230330 doi:10.1080/02701367.2002.10609017

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McMorrisT. (2004). Acquisition and performance of sports skills. Chichester, UK: Wiley.

  • MitchellB.McLennanS.LatimerK.GrahamD.GilmoreJ. & RushE. (2013). Improvement of fundamental movement skills through support and mentorship of class room teachers. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice 7(3) e230e234. PubMed ID: 23697592 doi:10.1016/j.orcp.2011.11.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MorganK.McGeeH.WatsonD.PerryI.BarryM.ShelleyE.BrughaR. (2008). SLÁN 2007: Survey of lifestyle attitudes & nutrition in Ireland: Main report. Dublin, Ireland: Department of Health and Children.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MorganP.J.BarnettL.M.CliffD.P.OkelyA.D.ScottH.A.CohenK.E. & LubansD.R. (2013). Fundamental movement skill interventions in youth: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatrics 132(5) e1361e1383. PubMed ID: 24167179 doi:10.1542/peds.2013-1167

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NaderP.R.BradleyR.H.HoutsR.M.McRitchieS.L. & O’BrienM. (2008). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from ages 9 to 15 years. JAMA 300(3) 295305. PubMed ID: 18632544 doi:10.1001/jama.300.3.295

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’BrienW.BeltonS. & IssartelJ. (2016). Fundamental movement skill proficiency amongst adolescent youth. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy 21(6) 557571. doi:10.1080/17408989.2015.1017451

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PayneV.G. & IsaacsL.D. (2002). Human motor development: A lifespan approach (5th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

  • RushE.CairncrossC.WilliamsM.H.TsengM.CoppingerT.McLennanS. & LatimerK. (2016). Project Energize: Intervention development and 10 years of progress in preventing childhood obesity. BMC Research Notes 9(44) 17. doi:10.1186/s13104-016-1849-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SalmonJ.BallK.HumeC.BoothM. & CrawfordD. (2008). Outcomes of a group-randomized trial to prevent excess weight gain, reduce screen behaviours and promote physical activity in 10-year-old children: Switch-play. International Journal of Obesity 32(4) 601612. PubMed ID: 18253162 doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803805

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shumway-CookA. & WoollacottM.H. (2007). Motor control: translating research into clinical practice (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SpessatoB.C.GabbardC.ValentiniN. & RudisillM. (2013). Gender differences in Brazilian children’s fundamental movement skill performance. Early Child Development and Care 183(7) 916923. doi:10.1080/03004430.2012.689761

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StoddenD.F.GoodwayJ.D.LangendorferS.J.RobertonM.A.RudisillM.E.GarciaC. & GarciaL.E. (2008). A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: An emergent relationship. Quest 60(2) 290306. doi:10.1080/00336297.2008.10483582

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ThomasJ.R.NelsonJ.K. & SilvermanS.J. (2011). Research methods in physical activity (6th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  • TompsettC.SandersR.TaylorC. & CobleyS. (2017). Pedagogical approaches to and effects of fundamental movement skill interventions on health outcomes: A systematic review. Sports Medicine 125. doi:10.1007/s40279-017-0697-z

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TremblayM.S. (2014). 2014 global summit on the physical activity of children. Journal of Physical Activity and Health 11(S1) S1S2. doi:10.1123/jpah.2014-0182

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • UlrichD.A. (2000). TGMD-2: Test of gross motor development (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed Publishers.

  • WalkerE. & NowackiA.S. (2011) Understanding equivalence and noninferiority testing. Journal of General Internal Medicine 26(2) 192196. PubMed ID: 20857339 doi:10.1007/s11606-010-1513-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WebberL.DivajevaD.MarshT.McPhersonK.BrownM.GaleaG. & BredaJ. (2014). The future burden of obesity-related diseases in the 53 World Health Organization European-region countries and the impact of effective interventions: A modelling study. BMJ Open 4e004787. PubMed ID: 25063459 doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-004787

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WiartL. & DarrahJ. (2001). Review of four tests of gross motor development. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 43(4) 279285. PubMed ID: 11305408 doi:10.1017/S0012162201000536

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WoodsC.MoynaN.QuinlanA.TannehillD. & WalshJ. (2010). The Children’s Sport Participation and Physical Activity study (CSPPA study) (Research Report No. 1). Dublin, Ireland: School of Health and Human Performance, Dublin City University and The Irish Sports Council.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 345 345 89
Full Text Views 20 20 10
PDF Downloads 6 6 2
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar