Adolescents’ Postural Control Learning According to the Frequency of Knowledge of Process

in Journal of Motor Learning and Development
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $41.00

1 year subscription

USD $55.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $79.00

2 year subscription

USD $103.00

Feedback is one of the most influential factors for motor skills learning. Physical Education teachers commonly use verbal cues to provide knowledge of process (KP) when teaching motor skills, but the ideal presentation frequency for KP in adolescents is unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the frequency of KP (i.e., 100%, 67%, 0%) on dynamic balance. Thirty adolescents, age 14–15 years, participated in the study. Performance on a stabilometer platform was used to assess dynamic balance. Participants received feedback after each trial (100%), in two out of three trials (67%), or no feedback during 12 30-s trials of practice. Adolescents who received feedback (67% or 100%) required lower mean velocity to maintain similar dynamic balance performance (i.e., root mean square). Moreover, adolescents receiving 100% feedback had a higher α-scaling than those who did not received it. During the post-test and the retention, both 67% and 100% KP frequencies were effective at improving postural control, compared to the no feedback control.

Gandía, García-Massó, Marco-Ahulló, and Estevan are with the Department of Teaching Music, Visual and Corporal Expression; García-Massó is also with the Human Movement Analysis Group; Estevan is also with the AFIPS Research Group; University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Estevan (isaac.estevan@uv.es) is corresponding author.
Journal of Motor Learning and Development
Article Sections
References
  • Cohen J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

  • Condon C. & Cremin K. (2014). Static balance norms in children. Physiotherapy Research International: The Journal for Researchers and Clinicians in Physical Therapy 19(1) 17. doi:10.1002/pri.1549

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coubard O.A. Ferrufino L. Nonaka T. Zelada O. Bril B. & Dietrich G. (2014). One month of contemporary dance modulates fractal posture in aging. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 617. PubMed ID: 24611047 doi:10.3389/fnagi.2014.00017

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferguson A.N. & Bowey J.A. (2005). Global processing speed as a mediator of developmental changes in children’s auditory memory span. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 91(2) 89112. PubMed ID: 15890172 doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2004.12.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fujii S. Lulic T. & Chen J.L. (2016). More feedback is better than less: Learning a novel upper limb joint coordination pattern with augmented auditory feedback. Frontiers in Neuroscience 10251. PubMed ID: 27375414 doi:10.3389/fnins.2016.00251

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guadagnoli M.A. & Lee T.D. (2004). Challenge point: A framework for conceptualizing the effects of various practice conditions in motor learning. Journal of Motor Behavior 36(2) 212224. PubMed ID: 15130871 doi:10.3200/JMBR.36.2.212-224

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hausdorff J.M. (2007). Gait dynamics, fractals and falls: Finding meaning in the stride-to-stride fluctuations of human walking. Human movement science 26(4) 555589. PubMed ID: 17618701 doi:10.1016/j.humov.2007.05.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Landin D. (1994). The role of verbal cues in skill learning. Quest 46(3) 299313. doi:10.1080/00336297.1994.10484128

  • Lin D. Seol H. Nussbaum M.A. & Madigan M.L. (2008). Reliability of COP-based postural sway measures and age-related differences. Gait & Posture 28(2) 337342. PubMed ID: 18316191 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2008.01.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Magill R.A. (1998). 1997 C. H. McCloy Research Lecture: Knowledge is more than we can talk about: Implicit learning in motor skill acquisition. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 69(2) 104110. PubMed ID: 9635325 doi:10.1080/02701367.1998.10607676

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Magill R.A. (2001). Motor learning: Concepts and applications (6th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

  • Mansfield A. Aqui A. Fraser J.E. Rajachandrakumar R. Lakhani B. & Patterson K.K. (2017). Can augmented feedback facilitate learning a reactive balance task among older adults? Experimental Brain Research 235(1) 293304. PubMed ID: 27709269 doi:10.1007/s00221-016-4790-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paillard T. & Noé F. (2015). Techniques and Methods for Testing the Postural Function in Healthy and Pathological Subjects. BioMed Research International 2015. doi:10.1155/2015/891390

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Palmer K.K. Matsuyama A.L. Irwin J.M. Porter J.M. & Robinson L.E. (2017). The effect of attentional focus cues on object control performance in elementary children. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy 22(6) 580588. doi:10.1080/17408989.2017.1294667

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Perreault M.E. & French K.E. (2016). Differences in children’s thinking and learning during attentional focus instruction. Human Movement Science 45154160. PubMed ID: 26638048 doi:10.1016/j.humov.2015.11.013

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pollock B.J. & Lee T.D. (1997). Dissociated contextual interference effects in children and adults. Perceptual and Motor Skills 84(3 Pt 1) 851858. PubMed ID: 9172193 doi:10.2466/pms.1997.84.3.851

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Prieto T.E. Myklebust J.B. Hoffmann R.G. Lovett E.G. & Myklebust B.M. (1996). Measures of postural steadiness: Differences between healthy young and elderly adults. IEEE Transactions on Bio-Medical Engineering 43(9) 956966. PubMed ID: 9214811 doi:10.1109/10.532130

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rink J. (2006). Teaching physical education for learning (5th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

  • Sattelmayer M. Elsig S. Hilfiker R. & Baer G. (2016). A systematic review and meta-analysis of selected motor learning principles in physiotherapy and medical education. BMC Medical Education 1615. doi:10.1186/s12909-016-0538-z

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schmidt R. & Lee T. (2011). Motor control and learning: A behavioral emphasis (5th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  • Schmidt R.A. & Wrisberg C.A. (2008). Motor learning and performance: A situation-based learning approach (4th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schmidt R.A. Young D.E. Swinnen S. & Shapiro D.C. (1989). Summary knowledge of results for skill acquisition: Support for the guidance hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning Memory and Cognition 15(2) 352359. PubMed ID: 2522520 doi:10.1037/0278-7393.15.2.352

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sharma D.A. Chevidikunnan M.F. Khan F.R. & Gaowgzeh R.A. (2016). Effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults. Journal of Physical Therapy Science 28(5) 14821486. PubMed ID: 27313355 doi:10.1589/jpts.28.1482

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sigrist R. Rauter G. Riener R. & Wolf P. (2013). Augmented visual, auditory, haptic, and multimodal feedback in motor learning: A review. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 20(1) 2153. PubMed ID: 23132605 doi:10.3758/s13423-012-0333-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sullivan K.J. Kantak S.S. & Burtner P.A. (2008). Motor learning in children: Feedback effects on skill acquisition. Physical Therapy 88(6) 720732. PubMed ID: 18339797 doi:10.2522/ptj.20070196

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sülzenbrück S. & Heuer H. (2011). Type of visual feedback during practice influences the precision of the acquired internal model of a complex visuo-motor transformation. Ergonomics 54(1) 3446. PubMed ID: 21181587 doi:10.1080/00140139.2010.535023

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thomas J.R. Cotten D.J. Spieth W.R. & Abraham N.L. (1975). Effects of fatigue on stabilometer performance and learning of males and females. Medicine and science in sports 7(3) 203206.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Villarrasa-Sapiña I. García-Massó X. Serra-Añó P. Garcia-Lucerga C. Gonzalez L.-M. & Lurbe E. (2016). Differences in intermittent postural control between normal-weight and obese children. Gait & Posture 4916. doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2016.06.012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wishart L.R. & Lee T.D. (1997). Effects of aging and reduced relative frequency of knowledge of results on learning a motor skill. Perceptual and Motor Skills 8411071122. doi:10.2466/pms.1997.84.3.1107

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wulf G. Chiviacowsky S. Schiller E. & Avila L.T.G. (2010). Frequent external-focus feedback enhances motor learning. Frontiers in Psychology 1190. PubMed ID: 21833250 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00190

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wulf G. & Schmidt R.A. (1989). The learning of generalized motor programs: Reducing the relative frequency of knowledge of results enhances memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition 15(4) 748757. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.15.4.748

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wulf G. & Shea C.H. (2002). Principles derived from the study of simple skills do not generalize to complex skill learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 9(2) 185211. PubMed ID: 12120783 doi:10.3758/BF03196276

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wulf G. & Shea C.H. (2004). Understanding the role of augmented feedback: The good, the bad and the ugly. In A.M. Williams & N.J. Hodges (Eds.) Skill Acquisition in Sport (pp. 121144). New York, NY: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wulf G. Shea C.H. & Matschiner S. (1998). Frequent feedback enhances complex motor skill learning. Journal of Motor Behavior 30(2) 180192. PubMed ID: 20037033 doi:10.1080/00222899809601335

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wulf G. Weigelt M. Poulter D. & McNevin N. (2003). Attentional focus on suprapostural tasks affects balance learning. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. A Human Experimental Psychology 56(7) 11911211. PubMed ID: 12959910 doi:10.1080/02724980343000062

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 196 196 33
Full Text Views 3 3 0
PDF Downloads 1 1 0
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar