Physical Activity in Public Parks of High and Low Socioeconomic Status in Colombia Using Observational Methods

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $115.00

1 year subscription

USD $153.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $218.00

2 year subscription

USD $285.00

Background: Public parks are an important resource for the promotion of physical activity (PA). This is the first study in Colombia and the fourth in Latin America to describe the characteristics of park users and their levels of PA using objective measures. Methods: A systematic observation assessed sex, age, and the level of PA of users of 10 parks in an intermediate-size city in Colombia, classified in low (5 parks) and high (5 parks) socioeconomic status (SES). A total of 10 daily observations were conducted, in 5 days of the week during 3 periods: morning, afternoon, and evening. Results: In total, 16,671 observations were completed, recording 46,047 users. A higher number of users per park, per day, were recorded in high SES (1195) versus low SES (647). More men were observed in low-SES than high-SES parks (70.1% vs 54.2%), as well as more children were observed in low-SES than high-SES parks (30.1% vs 15.9%). Older adults in high-SES parks were more frequent (9.5% vs 5.2%). Moderate to vigorous PA was higher in low-SES parks (71.7% vs 63.2%). Conclusions: Low-SES parks need more green spaces, walk/bike trails, and areas for PA. All parks need new programs to increase the number of users and their PA level, considering sex, age group, and period of the week.

Camargo and Ramírez are with the School of Physical Therapy, Research Group in Movement, Harmony and Life, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia. Ramírez is also with the Research Group in Being Culture and Movement, Universidad Santo Tomás, Bucaramanga, Colombia. Quiroga is with the School of Civil Engineering, Research Group in Geomatics, Management and Systems Optimization, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia. Ríos and Sarmiento are with the School of Medicine, Group of Epidemiology, University of los Andes, Bogota, Colombia. Férmino is with the Postgraduate Program in Physical Education, Research Group in Environment, Physical Activity and Health, Federal University of Technology—Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

Camargo (dcamargo@uis.edu.co) is corresponding author.
Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Article Sections
References
  • 1.

    World Health Organization. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2014. 2014. http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/red-icean/docs/global%20status%20report%20on%20NCD.pdf. Accessed May 29 2017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    World Health Organization. Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. 2009. http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GlobalHealthRisks_report_full.pdf. Accessed May 29 2017.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Lee I-MShiroma EJLobelo FPuska PBlair SNKatzmarzyk PT. Impact of physical inactivity on the world’s major non-communicable diseases. Lancet. 2012;380(9838):219229. PubMed doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61031-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Sallis JFCervero RBAscher WHenderson KAKraft MKKerr J. An ecological approach to creating active living communities. Annu Rev Public Health. 2006;27(1):297322. doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.27.021405.102100

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Cohen DAMcKenzie TLSehgal AWilliamson SGolinelli DLurie N. Contribution of public parks to physical activity. Am J Public Health. 2007;97(3):509514. PubMed doi:10.2105/AJPH.2005.072447

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Coutts CChapin THorner MTaylor C. County-level effects of green space access on physical activity. J Phys Act Health. 2013;10(2):232240. PubMed doi:10.1123/jpah.10.2.232

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Evenson KRJones SAHolliday KMCohen DAMcKenzie TL. Park characteristics, use, and physical activity: a review of studies using SOPARC (System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities). Prev Med. 2016;86:153166. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.02.029

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Joseph RPMaddock JE. Observational Park-based physical activity studies: a systematic review of the literature. Prev Med. 2016;89:257277. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.06.016

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    United Nations. World urbanization prospects: the 2011 revision. 2011. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/urbanization/WUP2011_Report.pdf. Accessed May 29 2017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Jordan RSimioni D. Ciudades intermedias de América Latina y el Caribe: propuestas para la gestión urbana. Ministero degli Affari Esteri Cooperazione Italiana (LC/l1117. 1998:450). 1998. http://repositorio.cepal.org/bitstream/handle/11362/31024/1/S9800066_es.pdf. Accessed May 29 2017.

    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Torres PCaicedo C. Las ciudades intermedias con mayor potencial en Colombia: un sistema de identificación. 2015. Banco Interam Desarro Dep Países del Grup Andin. Nota técnica# IDB-TN-758. https://publications.iadb.org/bitstream/handle/11319/6890/Las_ciudades_intermedias_con_mayor_potencial_Colombia.pdf?sequence=1. Accessed May 29 2017.

    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Cohen DALapham SEvenson K Ret al. Use of neighbourhood parks: does socio-economic status matter? A four-city study. Public Health. 2013;127:325332. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2013.01.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Leslie ECerin EKremer P. Perceived neighborhood environment and park use as mediators of the effect of area socio-economic status on walking behaviors. J Phys Act Health. 2010;7:802810. PubMed doi:10.1123/jpah.7.6.802

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Hino AAFReis RSRibeiro ICParra DCBrownson RCFermino RC. Using observational methods to evaluate public open spaces and physical activity in Brazil. J Phys Act Health. 2010;7:7(suppl 2):146154. doi:10.1123/jpah.7.s2.s146

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Parra DCMcKenzie TLRibeiro ICet al. Assessing physical activity in public parks in Brazil using systematic observation. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(8):14201426. PubMed doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009.181230

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Del Campo Vega CTutte VBermudez GParra DC. Impact on area-level physical activity following the implementation of a fitness zone in Montevideo, Uruguay. J Phys Act Health. 2017;14:883887. PubMed doi:10.1123/jpah.2016-0394

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Scopelliti MCarrusb GAdinolfic Get al. Staying in touch with nature and well-being in different income groups: the experience of urban parks in Bogotá. Landsc Urban Plan. 2016;148:139148. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2015.11.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo–Findeter. Plan de acción Bucaramanga. 2013. https://www.findeter.gov.co/descargar.php?idFile=210056. Accessed November 29 2017.

    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Alcaldía de Bucaramanga. Plan de ordenamineto territorial de segunda generación 2013–2027. Componente general documentotécnico N°2. 2014. http://www.concejodebucaramanga.gov.co/planordenamientoterritorial/tomo2.pdf. Accessed November 29 2017.

    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    McKenzie TLCohen DA. SOPARC (System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities). Description and procedures manual. 2007. https://activelivingresearch.org/soparc-system-observing-play-and-recreation-communities. Accessed May 29 2017.

    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Santos MPMRech CRAlberico COet al. Utility and reliability of an App for the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (iSOPARC®). Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. 2016;20(2):9398. doi:10.1080/1091367X.2015.1120733

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Ward PMcKenzie TLCohen DAet al. Physical activity surveillance in parks using direct observation settings and park selection. Prev Chronic Dis. 2014;11(8):19. doi:10.5888/pcd11.130147

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    República de Colombia Depatamento Nacional de Estadística (DANE). Estratificación socioeconómica. http://www.dane.gov.co/index.php/69-espanol/geoestadistica/estratificacion/468-estratificacion-socioeconomica. Accessed March 7 2018.

    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    República de Colombia Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (DANE). Censo general 2005. Nivel Nacional. http://www.dane.gov.co/files/censos/libroCenso2005nacional.pdf. Accessed November 21 2017.

    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Cohen DAHan BNagel CJet al. The first national study of neighborhood parks: implications for physical activity. Am J Prev Med. 2016;51:419426. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2016.03.021

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Ramírez PCCamargo DMQuiroga VRíos APFérmino RCSarmiento OL. Quality of public urban parks for physical activity practice in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Rev Bras Cineantropom Desempenho Hum. 2017;19:480492. doi:10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n4p480

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Alcaldía de Bucaramanga. Redes sociales. ¡Felices y en forma! Así avanzan los programas del Adulto Mayor. http://www.bucaramanga.gov.co/noticias/felices-y-en-forma-asi-avanzan-los-programas-del-adulto-mayor/. Accessed March 7 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Pineda E. Associations between park-use, preferences of park features, and physical activity among city residents varying in socioeconomic status. 2014. http://thescholarship.ecu.edu/bitstream/handle/10342/4577/Pineda_ecu_0600O_11214.pdf?sequence=1. Accessed November 21 2017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Floyd MFSpengler JOMaddock JEGobster PHSuau LJ. Park-based physical activity in diverse communities of two U.S. cities. An observational study. Am J Prev Med. 2008;34:299305. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2008.01.009

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Camargo DMRamírez PCQuiroga VPorras HBarreto MOrozco LC. Informe técnico N°1. Revisión actualizada de los parques en Bucaramanga. Proyecto 110265740960 Contrato de financiación RC. No. 686-2014 Colciencias; 2015.

    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Alcaldía de Bucaramanga. Recuperación, mantenimiento y conservación de los parques y zonas verdes del municipio de Bucaramanga. Proposición N°037. 2013. http://www.concejodebucaramanga.gov.co/descargas/RESPUESTAS_1_PROPOSICION00000000037_%202013.pdf. Accessed May 29 2017.

    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 73 73 17
Full Text Views 4 4 0
PDF Downloads 2 2 0
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar