Introduction

Only 28.8% of 13-15 old years accumulate 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on five or more days per week. In fact, Uruguayan adolescents only report a median of two days per week of 60 minutes of MVPA, according to the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS).1 In Uruguay, there is an emerging body of research on physical activity and health, focused especially on children and adolescents. Therefore, Uruguay was enrolled in the Global Matrix 3.0 with the aim of creating its first report card on physical activity among children and adolescents.

Methods

The Uruguay’s 2018 Report Card (see Figure 1) included the 10 core physical activity indicators that are common to the Global Matrix 3.0 (Overall Physical Activity, Organized Sport Participation, Active Play, Active Transportation, Sedentary Behavior, Physical Fitness, Family and Peers, School, Community and Environment, Government Strategies and Investments). Each of the 10 indicators belongs to 1 of 3 categories: Daily Behaviors (Overall Physical Activity, Organized Sport and Physical Activity Participation, Active Play, Active Transportation, Physical Literacy, Sleep, Sedentary Behaviors), Settings and Sources of Influence (Family and Peers, School, Community and Environment), and Strategies and Investments (Government, Nongovernment).

Figure 1
Figure 1

—Uruguay’s 2018 Report Card cover.

Citation: Journal of Physical Activity and Health 15, s2; 10.1123/jpah.2018-0466

The Report Card synthesized data collected between March to April 2018 from multiple sources to inform the 10 indicator grades. The data sources relied upon most heavily were the 2012 GSHS (World Health Organization, 2012), scientific papers from national journals, and gray literature such as government and nongovernment reports and online content.

Results and Discussion

Overall, grades for the 10 indicators ranged from D to C (see Table 1). Only one indicator (organized sport participation) was assigned a grade of “F”. Three indicators were incomplete due to the lack of information (active play, family and peers and community and environment). The majority of the information presented in Table 1 is representative of 13-15 year olds, with the exception of organized sport participation (<18 years) and physical fitness (12-16 years). Physical activity data on the standard Report Card population range (i.e., 5-17 year olds) does not exist. The Global Observatory of Physical Activity2 reported that the lack of scientific research in the field of physical activity and health in Uruguay should be addressed in the future. More studies targeting all physical activity domains for children and adolescents (5-17 years) are needed.

Table 1

Grades and rationales for Uruguay’s 2018 Report Card

IndicatorGradeRationale
Overall Physical ActivityD28.8% of adolescents ranged between 13 and 15 years old reach 60 minutes of MVPA during 5 or more days per week. Physical activity data from younger populations is needed (5-12 years) as well as objectively assessed physical activity data.
Organized Sport ParticipationF17.0% of the children and adolescents (12-16 years) are taking part in organized sport. Registration and availability of these data is needed.
Active PlayINCThere was insufficient data to grade this indicator.
Active TransportationC51.2% of adolescents ranged between 13 and 15 years old use active transportation (e.g., walking, bicycling) to and from school 4 or more days per week.6
Sedentary BehavioursC-41.7% of adolescents ranged between 13 and 15 years old reached the recommendations of not more than 2 hours per day in sedentary behaviours (sitting activities).
Physical FitnessC-40.8 was the average percentile7 of handgrip strength, standing broad jump and 20 m shuttle run test in a sample of 500 adolescents from the capital ranged between 12 and 16 years old.8
Family and PeersINCThere was insufficient data to grade this indicator.
SchoolC-45.9% of the adolescents ranged between 13 and 15 years old participate in physical education classes two days per week.
Community and EnvironmentINCThere was insufficient data to grade this indicator.
GovernmentDUruguay implemented a “National Program for Sports Development” for the period from 2012 to 2018. It includes policies for developing sport participation in children and adolescents. Data regarding the proportion of the national budget invested in physical activity and sports for children and adolescents were not available. The Ministry of Public Health (MSP) and the National Secretary of Sport (SND) have published guidelines on physical activity for the community of all ages in 2017. This publication has specific chapters with guidelines for children and adolescents.

Data collected were only based on self-report questionnaires. Most of the indicators were graded based on the GSHS due to the amount of available information. It is known that different physical activity questionnaires provide different information on activity time3 and the information collected by physical activity self-reported questionnaires and accelerometry is also different.4 Therefore, research methodology of physical activity and sedentary behavior should be improved in Uruguay. Almost half the population in Uruguay concentrates in the capital.5 The large amount of information obtained was from residents living within the capital, where there are plenty of opportunities for children and adolescents to participate in sport. Gathering research across the entire country is needed to better depict physical activity behaviour and contextual factors of children and adolescents.

Conclusion

Uruguay has created its first report card on physical activity in children and adolescents, reporting on 10 indictors related to factors that influence the physical activity in this population. It is evident that there is a lack of information regarding physical activity for children and adolescents (5-17 years). A better-coordinated approach between government and academy is required in the future.

Acknowledgements

Authors thank Milca Sosa, Susana Guedes, Enrique Pintos, Sofía Fernández, Gabriel Vargas, Nicolás de León and César Corvos for their contribution to this study. Authors also thank the Universidad de la República for financing this project.

References

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    Aguilar-Farias NMartino-Fuentealba PCarcamo-Oyarzun Jet al. A regional vision of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and physical education in adolescents from Latin America and the Caribbean: results from 26 countries [published online ahead of print March 15 2018]. Int J Epidemiol. doi:10.1093/ije/dyy033

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    Ramírez Varela APratt MPowell Ket al. Worldwide surveillance, policy, and research on physical activity and health: The global observatory for physical activity. J Phys Act Health. 2017;14(9):701709. doi:10.1123/jpah.2016-0626

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  • 3.

    Brown WBauman AChey TTrost SMummery K. Comparison of surveys used to measure physical activity. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2004;28(2):128134. doi:10.1111/j.1467-842X.2004.tb00925.x

    • Crossref
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  • 4.

    Dyrstad SMHansen BHHolme IMAnderssen SA. Comparison of self-reported versus accelerometer-measured physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014;46(1):99106. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182a0595f

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  • 5.

    National Institute of Statistics of Uruguay. Census 2011. 2011. http://www.ine.gub.uy/web/guest/censos-2011. Accessed June 11 2018.

  • 6.

    World Health Organization. Global school-based Student Health Survey (GSHS). 2012. http://www.who.int/ncds/surveillance/gshs/uruguay/en/. Accessed March 28 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Tomkinson GRCarver KDAtkinson Fet al. European normative values for physical fitness in children and adolescents aged 9-17 years: results from 2 779 165 Eurofit performances representing 30 countries [published online ahead of print November 30 2017]. Br J Sports Med. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2017-098253

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  • 8.

    Gioscia GBetervide SBermúdez GQuagliatta D. Valoración de la condición física en estudiantes de Secundaria de Montevideo y área Metropolitana, Uruguay. Revista Universitaria de la Educación Física y el Deporte. 2017;10(10):815.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

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Brazo-Sayavera is with the “Polo de Desarrollo Universitario EFISAL” Research Department, Centro Universitario de Rivera, Rivera, Uruguay. Del Campo is with the Comisión Honoraria para la Salud Cardiovascular, Montevideo, Uruguay. Rodríguez is with the Ministerio de Salud Pública, Montevideo, Uruguay. Silva is with the Postgraduate Program in Physical Education and the Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology, University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Merellano-Navarro and Olivares are with the School of Pedagogy, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Talca, Chile.

Brazo-Sayavera (jbsayavera@cur.edu.uy) is corresponding author.
Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Article Sections
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References
  • 1.

    Aguilar-Farias NMartino-Fuentealba PCarcamo-Oyarzun Jet al. A regional vision of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and physical education in adolescents from Latin America and the Caribbean: results from 26 countries [published online ahead of print March 15 2018]. Int J Epidemiol. doi:10.1093/ije/dyy033

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Ramírez Varela APratt MPowell Ket al. Worldwide surveillance, policy, and research on physical activity and health: The global observatory for physical activity. J Phys Act Health. 2017;14(9):701709. doi:10.1123/jpah.2016-0626

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Brown WBauman AChey TTrost SMummery K. Comparison of surveys used to measure physical activity. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2004;28(2):128134. doi:10.1111/j.1467-842X.2004.tb00925.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Dyrstad SMHansen BHHolme IMAnderssen SA. Comparison of self-reported versus accelerometer-measured physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014;46(1):99106. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182a0595f

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    National Institute of Statistics of Uruguay. Census 2011. 2011. http://www.ine.gub.uy/web/guest/censos-2011. Accessed June 11 2018.

  • 6.

    World Health Organization. Global school-based Student Health Survey (GSHS). 2012. http://www.who.int/ncds/surveillance/gshs/uruguay/en/. Accessed March 28 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Tomkinson GRCarver KDAtkinson Fet al. European normative values for physical fitness in children and adolescents aged 9-17 years: results from 2 779 165 Eurofit performances representing 30 countries [published online ahead of print November 30 2017]. Br J Sports Med. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2017-098253

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Gioscia GBetervide SBermúdez GQuagliatta D. Valoración de la condición física en estudiantes de Secundaria de Montevideo y área Metropolitana, Uruguay. Revista Universitaria de la Educación Física y el Deporte. 2017;10(10):815.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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