Background: Recent evidence has suggested that chronic physical activities including balance exercises have positive effects on cognition, but their acute effects are still unknown. In the present study, the authors tested the hypothesis that an acute bout of balance exercise would enhance cognitive performance compared with aerobic activity. Methods: A total of 20 healthy middle-aged adults completed 2 acute 30-minute balance and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise sessions on 2 counterbalanced separate occasions. To assess cognitive functions, performance tasks in executive control, perceptual speed, and simple reaction time were tested before and immediately after each exercise session. Results: Although there were no significant interactions (time × exercise condition, P > .05), the main effects of time were significant in executive control (P < .05), perceptual speed (P < .05), and simple reaction time (P < .001), showing improvements after both exercises. Conclusions: These findings highlight that both types of exercise (aerobic, more metabolic and less cognitively demanding; balance, more cognitively and less metabolically demanding) were able to positively affect simple reaction time performance, perceptual speed, and executive control independently of physiological adjustments occurring during aerobic or balance exercise.

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have supported the relationship between physical exercise and cognition,1 providing evidence of the beneficial effect of both chronic24 and acute exercise5,6 on cognitive functions. The most beneficial effects of exercise on cognitive performance has been shown to occur when exercise is performed at moderate intensities5 and the cognitive performance is assessed immediately after exercise.6

Acute physical activity has an impact on cognitive processes that require greater amounts of executive control.5,7 Executive control is the inhibition subcomponent of the executive functions (EFs, ie, the ability to initiate, adapt, manage, and control information processes and behaviors), which refers to the ability of focusing on stimuli that are relevant to task performance, while reducing the influence of distracting information of task-irrelevant stimuli.8 Kamijo et al9 demonstrated that an acute bout of aerobic exercise enhanced reaction time performance in the Flanker task (a task measuring executive control), and this was accompanied by an increase in the amplitude and a decrease in the latency of the P3 component of event-related brain potential, which reflects attentional resource allocation and speed of stimulus evaluation.10 Similar results were also found by Hillman et al,11 although improvements in behavioral performance were not observed. This evidence suggests that acute aerobic exercise may act as a positive mediator of executive control. Similar to executive control, beneficial effects of acute aerobic exercise have also been found for perceptual speed, which is another intellectual ability.12,13 Perceptual speed was demonstrated to be positively influenced by both a cardiovascular and a coordinative training period14 and was shown to be sensible to the effect of physical activity. Furthermore, there is also evidence indicating that aerobic exercise improved simple reaction time performance,15 which largely influences perceptual speed.16

The majority of the studies on acute exercise and cognition focused on aerobic exercise. Relatively fewer studies investigated the acute effect of exercise on cognition with other modes of physical activity. A recent investigation has shown that cognitive performance after a yoga exercise bout increased significantly with respect to the baseline, while the same increment was not observed after an aerobic exercise bout as control condition.17 This finding is in accordance with a recent hypothesis arguing that physical activity including some form of cognitive engagement (eg, team sports, neuromotor, and coordinative exercises) has more beneficial effects on cognition.18,19 Cognitive engagement refers to the allocation of attention and effort needed to manage complex tasks.20 A longitudinal investigation showed that physical activities that include EF-specific cognitive engagement had positive effects on attention in children.21 Moreover, acute physical activity including EF-specific cognitive engagement was found to improve inhibition (assessed by the Flanker task) in young school children.22 As attention and EFs are highly involved in maintaining or regaining balance,23 physical activity with EF-specific cognitive engagement can include situations in which individuals are asked to inhibit prepotent movements, update information, and shift between situations, such as neuromotor activities targeting balance. For instance, in an experiment, participants were instructed to perform a wide range of new postural coordination by intentionally following additional behavioral information (ie, a Lissajous figure) projected on a screen.24 Positive effects were observed due to practice, such as change in coordination pattern stability, but also in the nonlinear nature of the variability of the postural sway, without any practice of intense aerobic activity.24 The relationship between balance training and cognitive functions was further corroborated by a recent study demonstrating that a balance training program was able to improve memory and spatial cognition in healthy adults, suggesting that cardiorespiratory fitness did not seem necessary to improve cognition.25 Although these recent evidences on the positive effects of balance training on cognition, whether an acute bout of physical activity targeting balance with EF-specific cognitive engagement led to improvements in cognitive performance remains to be investigated.

Although a training program usually has a multicomponent approach including both aerobic and balance exercises, rather than a single specific form of exercise,26 it seems necessary to clarify the differential effects of an acute bout of balance training on cognition compared with aerobic training. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of physical activity targeting balance with EF-specific cognitive engagement compared with aerobic physical activity on the cognitive performance of executive control, perceptual speed, and simple reaction time. It was hypothesized that task performance on executive control, perceptual speed, and simple reaction time would be enhanced similarly by both aerobic activity and balance activity when compared with preexercise task performance.

Methods

Participants

A total of 20 healthy middle-age adults were recruited from a fitness center and voluntarily participated in this study. The eligibility criteria were as follows: age ranging from 45 to 65 years; taking part in a physical activity routine for wellness purposes for at least 150 minutes per week (3 times per week). They reported no neurological disorders, as well as no cardiovascular and musculoskeletal diseases. The participants provided a written informed consent before the investigation. In accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, the study was approved (approval number: 2/12) by the ethics committee of the Università degli Studi di Milano.

Experimental Design

The present study used a repeated-measures acute exercise paradigm.27 The experimental design is shown in Figure 1. Cognitive performance was assessed before and immediately after a 30-minute exercise task. The study was composed of 3 different sessions, each one separated by at least 1 week. The preliminary session aimed to familiarize the participants with the testing procedures and to collect anthropometric variables. The 2 experimental sessions involved an aerobic exercise condition and a balance exercise condition. The order of the aerobic exercise and balance exercise conditions was counterbalanced across participants. The participants were asked to abstain from physical activity in the 2 days before the trials and from consuming alcoholic or caffeine-containing products for a 6-hour period before the experiment. All sessions were scheduled in the late morning to mitigate possible effects related to circadian variations.

Figure 1
Figure 1

—Schematic representation of the experimental design.

Citation: Journal of Physical Activity and Health 17, 8; 10.1123/jpah.2020-0005

Procedures

Preliminary Session

The participants received a familiarization prior to the exercise testing procedures. First, they acquired familiarity with the cognitive tasks, performing the visual search task and Flanker task and, finally, the clinical reaction time assessment. Anthropometric variables were also collected. The participants were informed that, in the 2 experimental sessions, they would be tested on the visual search task, Flanker task, and clinical reaction time before and after 30 minutes of exercise. One exercise condition required pedaling against a resistance until the heart rate reached a target heart rate zone (ie, moderate intensity), while the other condition involved a balance training protocol, with a series of exercises aimed to improve balance skill. Supervised by an operator, they adjusted the seat position for their own comfort on the cycle ergometer (Technogym, Cesena, Italy).

Experimental Exercise Sessions

In the exercise sessions, the participants underwent preexercise cognitive tests (Flanker task, visual search task, and clinical reaction time). Immediately after the end of the cognitive tests, they performed a 30-minute exercise bout, either aerobic or balance. As soon as the 30-minute exercise period ended, the participants were asked to complete the postexercise cognitive tests. The elapsed time between exercise cessation and the start of the cognitive tests was about 30 seconds. Clinical reaction time was assessed first, followed by the visual search task and by the Flanker task at about 2 minutes and 7 minutes from the exercise cessation, respectively. In the aerobic exercise session, the participants were equipped with a heart rate elastic band, and after the preexercise cognitive tests, they performed a 30-minute steady-state aerobic bout on the cycle ergometer with moderate intensity. They were asked to maintain their heart rate within 40% to 59% of the heart rate reserve, which, in accordance with the American College of Sports Medicine recommendations, corresponds to moderate intensity.28 In the balance exercise session, a 30-minute progression of exercises targeting balance with EF-specific cognitive engagement was led by an experienced sport scientist. The balance exercise session was characterized by a circuit training of 7 stations, each lasting 4 minutes, to induce the participants to maintain or regain their balance and to challenge their functional stability. Specifically, each exercise was structured with an increased difficulty on varying surfaces (from firm to unstable), with different conditions (from bipodalic to monopodalic stance) and in various modalities (from static to dynamic, from eyes open to closed, from absence to presence of external upper body perturbations, from wide to narrow base of support). The balance exercise session was structured following the existing literature.2931 In accordance with the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines, the balance circuit training was designed to stimulate postural reactions, involving neuromotor exercises for a total volume of 30 minutes.28

Cognitive Tests

Simple Reaction Time

Simple reaction time was assessed using the clinical reaction time test.32 The participants sat on a chair with their dominant forearm and wrist on a table, maintaining their open hand at the edge of the table. The examiner suspended the clinical reaction time apparatus vertically so that the weighted disk was aligned with the open hand of the participant. The examiner released the apparatus at random time intervals (from 4 to 10 seconds), and the participant was asked to catch it as quickly as possible, maintaining his gaze on the weighted disc. Gazing at the examiner’s hand was not allowed. The distance from the top of the disk to the most superior part of the participant’s hand was recorded. This distance was then converted to clinical reaction time (in milliseconds) using the equation of time needed for an object to fall a given distance. After 3 practice trials, the participant performed 8 experimental trials, and the mean value among these 8 trials was considered for analysis.

Perceptual Speed

Perceptual speed was assessed by the visual search task.33 The target stimulus was an orange letter T, and the distractor stimuli were a blue T and an upside-down orange T. The participants were asked to press the space button of the keyboard when the target stimulus was present among distractor stimuli and to avoid a response when the target was absent. The number of items for each trial among which the target stimulus might be present was 5, 10, 15, and 20, which were randomized across a total of 100 trials. For each item trial, 25 trials were presented randomly, among which, trials with the target present or absent occurred with the same probability. The participants had to respond as quickly and accurately as possible within 4 seconds from the trial presentation. Only correct responses were included in the outcome variables. The reaction time and percent accuracy were computed for each item trial.

Executive Control

Executive control was assessed using a modified version of the Flanker task, with arrows.34 The participants had to respond as quickly and accurately as possible to the direction of a left or right target arrow, while ignoring 2 flanking arrows on each side, pointing in the same or the opposite direction. The task included 2 different conditions. The congruent condition consisted of trials in which both the target arrow and the flanking arrows pointed in the same direction (left: < < < < < or right: > > > > >). The incongruent condition consisted of flanking arrows that pointed in the opposite direction of the target arrow (< < > < < or > > < > >). The participants were asked to press the button A on the keyboard when the target arrow pointed to the left and the button L when the target arrow pointed to the right. For each condition, 100 trials were presented with right and left target arrows occurring randomly with the same probability. The participants had 2 seconds to provide their response to the target arrow. Only correct responses were included in the outcome variables. The reaction time and percent accuracy were independently computed for each condition.

Statistical Analysis

The data are expressed as mean (SD). A 2-way analysis of variance (time × exercise condition) with repeated measures on both factors was used to investigate the effect of the exercise condition on each variable. Post hoc analyses to compare pairs of means were conducted using Bonferroni adjustment. The effect sizes were calculated to assess the magnitude of the effect using Cohen d.35 Cohen d values between 0.20 and 0.49 indicated a small effect, values between 0.50 and 0.79 indicated a medium effect, and values of 0.80 and above indicated a large effect size. The level of significance was set at P ≤ .05. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism for Windows (version 7.00; GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA).

Results

The demographic characteristics (mean [SD]) of the participants (11 males and 9 females) were as follows: age = 53 (6.5) years; body mass = 70.35 (14.68) kg; stature = 1.70 (0.74) m.

Clinical Reaction Time

The effect of exercise condition on clinical reaction time is shown in Figure 2. The main effect of exercise condition was not significant (F1,19 = 1.66, P = .213), whereas there was a significant main effect of time (F1,19 = 49.13, P < .001). No significant interaction (time × exercise condition) was found (F1,19 = 1.38, P = .255), showing that clinical reaction time was lower after exercise for both groups, with a medium effect size (ES = 0.65, medium).

Figure 2
Figure 2

—Effect of aerobic and balance exercise conditions on clinical reaction time. #Significant difference between pre and post by Bonferroni adjustment: P < .01. §Significant difference between pre and post by Bonferroni adjustment: P < .001.

Citation: Journal of Physical Activity and Health 17, 8; 10.1123/jpah.2020-0005

Visual Search Task

The effect of exercise condition on reaction time of the visual search task is shown in Figure 3. Given the overall high-performance accuracy (ceiling effect; Table 1), statistical comparison was restricted to reaction time data. For the reaction time of the 5 items, the main effect of the exercise condition was not significant (F1,19 = 0.36, P = .554), whereas there was a significant main effect of time (F1,19 = 5.35, P = .032). No significant interaction (time × exercise condition) was found (F1,19 = 1.06, P = .316), showing that the reaction time for the 5 items decreased after exercise with respect to preexercise, with a small effect size (ES = 0.34, small) and regardless of the exercise condition.

Figure 3
Figure 3

—Effect of aerobic and balance exercise conditions on reaction time for each item trial in the visual search task. *Significant difference between pre and post by Bonferroni adjustment: P < .05. #Significant difference between pre and post by Bonferroni adjustment: P < .01.

Citation: Journal of Physical Activity and Health 17, 8; 10.1123/jpah.2020-0005

Table 1

Descriptive Statistics of Response Accuracy (% Correct) in Flanker Task and Visual Search Task for Both Aerobic and Balance Exercise Conditions

  Flanker taskVisual search task
CongruentIncongruent5 items10 items15 items20 items
AerobicPre99.4 (0.9)96.9 (2.4)99.0 (2.0)98.7 (3.1)99.1 (2.1)98.0 (3.9)
Post98.8 (2.4)97.4 (2.8)99.6 (1.0)99.2 (2.6)99.4 (1.3)99.6 (1.1)
BalancePre99.3 (2.3)97.1 (3.1)99.7 (0.7)99.8 (0.7)99.8 (0.8)98.2 (2.6)
Post99.5 (1.3)97.4 (2.6)99.5 (1.3)99.1 (1.7)98.7 (2.3)98.9 (2.3)

Note: Values are presented as mean (SD).

For the reaction time of the 10 items, the main effect of the exercise condition was not significant (F1,19 = 0.048, P = .830), whereas there was a significant main effect of time (F1,19 = 11.43, P = .003). No significant interaction (time × exercise condition) was found (F1,19 = 3.44, P = .079), showing that the reaction time for the 10 items also decreased after exercise with respect to preexercise, with a small effect size (ES = 0.31, small) and regardless of the exercise condition.

For the reaction time of the 15 items, the main effect of the exercise condition was not significant (F1,19 = 1.95, P = .178), whereas there was a significant main effect of time (F1,19 = 17.61, P < .001). No significant interaction (time × exercise condition) was found (F1,19 = 2.11, P = .163), showing that the reaction time for the 15 items also decreased after exercise with respect to preexercise, with a small effect size (ES = 0.43, small) and regardless of the exercise condition.

For the reaction time of the 20 items, the main effect of the exercise condition was not significant (F1,19 = 2.74, P = .114), whereas there was a significant main effect of time (F1,19 = 29.79, P < .001). No significant interaction (time × exercise condition) was found (F1,19 = 0.19, P = .661), showing that the reaction time for the 20 items also decreased after exercise with respect to preexercise, with a medium effect size (ES = 0.51, medium) and regardless of the exercise condition.

Flanker Task

The effect of the exercise condition on the reaction time of the Flanker task is shown in Figure 4. Given the overall high-performance accuracy (ceiling effect) (Table 1), the statistical comparison was restricted to reaction time data. For the reaction time in the congruent condition, the main effect of the exercise condition was not significant (F1,19 = 0.14, P = .713), whereas there was a significant main effect of time (F1,19 = 5.11, P = .036). No significant interaction (time × exercise condition) was found (F1,19 = 0.281, P = .602), showing that the reaction time in the congruent condition was decreased after exercise, regardless of the exercise condition, with a small effect size (ES = 0.22, small). Similarly, for the reaction time of the incongruent condition, the main effect of the exercise condition was not significant (F1,19 = 0.85, P = .367), whereas there was a significant main effect of time (F1,19 = 9.09, P = .007). No significant interaction (time × exercise condition) was found (F1,19 = 1.69, P = .209), showing that the reaction time in the incongruent condition was decreased after exercise, regardless of the exercise condition, with a small effect size (ES = 0.31, small).

Figure 4
Figure 4

—Effect of aerobic and balance exercise conditions on reaction time for congruent and incongruent condition in the Flanker task. #Significant difference between pre and post by Bonferroni adjustment: P < .01.

Citation: Journal of Physical Activity and Health 17, 8; 10.1123/jpah.2020-0005

Discussion

The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an acute bout of balance exercise and aerobic exercise on the cognitive performance of executive control, perceptual speed, and simple reaction time.

The main finding was that both an acute bout of aerobic exercise and an acute bout of balance exercise led to an improvement in reaction time, without a real differential effect of those 2 exercise types. The finding that an acute bout of physical exercise can improve cognition has important implications for different populations, from young children22 and adolescents36 for supporting academic performance, to adults for preserving cognitive decline.37 Cognitive decline may increase the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease and related dementias, and physical activity has been proposed to have protective effects on cognition and the brain.3739

Regarding executive control, both the balance exercise condition and aerobic exercise condition significantly enhanced the reaction time performance in both the incongruent and congruent conditions (Figure 4). The incongruent condition of the Flanker task requires great attentional control to manage potentially misleading distractors (ie, flankers).40 Accordingly, a previous study has suggested that physical activity appears to be related to performance, requiring a high level of attentional control (ie, incongruent conditions reflecting distractor information).7 Interestingly, although they are both classified as a small effect, the effect size in the incongruent condition is higher than the one in the congruent condition (0.22 vs 0.31), advocating for a larger effect of physical activity (regardless of the type of activity) in tasks requiring great attentional control. The results on executive control reported in the current study are consistent with those of a study on aerobic cycling exercise,9 in which the authors demonstrated that the reaction time performance in the Flanker task improved after an acute bout of aerobic cycling exercise. It is worth noticing that we obtained similar results to Kamijo et al,9 despite a substantial difference in the experimental protocol. In the present study, we tested cognitive performance immediately before and after the exercise condition within the same session, whereas in the study by Kamijo et al,9 the baseline cognitive performance was assessed in an earlier testing session and further compared with a postexercise cognitive performance obtained in a subsequent exercise session. The results of the improvements in the Flanker task after aerobic exercise reported in the current study, however, are inconsistent with those by 2 other previous studies,27,11 which employed a different design with respect to the timing of the cognitive test administration. For example, the Flanker task performance in the study by Weng et al27 was assessed after a 5-minute cool-down period after the 30-minute exercise bout, and therefore, cognitive tests were administered 6 or 12 minutes after exercise cessation (depending on the task order). Another study assessed the Flanker task performance 48 minutes after exercise (ie, cool-down period) and reported no improvements in reaction time performance.11 In the present study, no cool-down period was conceded to the participants, and the cognitive tests were performed immediately after the cessation of the exercise, with the same order for all participants (30 s for clinical reaction time, 2 min for visual search task, 7 min for Flanker task). These discrepancies in the time of the cognitive test administration suggest that the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of acute aerobic exercise on executive control are highly time dependent.

Similar to executive control, perceptual speed improved significantly from the preaerobic exercise condition to the postaerobic exercise condition, regardless of the types of exercise. The finding that acute aerobic exercise induced improvements in the reaction time performance of the visual search task is in agreement with those of previous studies.13,41 The reaction time to detect a target surrounded by distractors was found to be faster during an acute bout of aerobic cycling exercise41 and after 10 minutes of cycling exercise at an intensity from moderate to high.13 Accordingly, it has been suggested that aerobic capacity may be an important determinant of visual search performance in response to acute physical stress.41 Interestingly, the effect of exercise on visual search was larger when the task involved 20 items compared with the task with only 5 or 10 items (from 0.34 for 5 items to 0.51 for 20 items), advocating again for a greater impact of exercise on tasks requiring greater attentional control. Taken together, the increased performance in the Flanker task and visual search task after an acute bout of aerobic exercise provides further evidence for the beneficial effect of aerobic exercise on cognitive performance. In the meantime, the absence of group effect or interaction highlights that those beneficial effects can be achieved to a similar extent using balance exercises. Although we were expecting greater effects for the balance exercise conditions, specifically in the tasks requiring high attentional control, those results might be of high importance for populations that cannot easily perform aerobic exercise (eg, elderly, injured population).

Parallel to executive control and perceptual speed assessed by computer-based tasks, the present study also included a clinical assessment of simple reaction time, that is, clinical reaction time.32 Significant pre–post improvements in clinical reaction time were found for both exercise conditions, with a medium effect (Figure 2). These findings highlight that both types of exercise were able to positively affect simple reaction time performance independently of physiological adjustments occurring during aerobic or balance exercises. The positive effect of aerobic exercise on simple reaction time is in line with previous studies showing that an acute bout of aerobic exercise was able to enhance performance in simple reaction time.15,42

Several underlying mechanisms have been proposed to explain the effects of an acute bout of physical activity on cognition. First, acute physical activity stimulates physiological arousal, thus facilitating the cognitive performance by increasing the allocation of attention7 and triggering an increase of catecholamines in the brain (eg, epinephrine, dopamine).43 Another mechanism involves an increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor induced by exercise, which promotes neural growth and synaptic plasticity. Accordingly, a systematic review provided evidence for an increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in human blood after a single bout of exercise.44 Furthermore, a longitudinal physical activity program based on aerobic exercise is thought to promote angiogenesis and neurogenesis,3 resulting in improvements in cognitive performance.

Recently, apart from the cardiovascular fitness hypothesis, the cognitive demand employed during a certain physical task has been proposed as a potential mediator for improving cognition.18,19 Unlike typical aerobic exercises (eg, cycling, walking, running) that involve automated repetitive movements, balance training may include exercises targeting gross and fine body coordination, spatial orientation, and postural control. These types of exercises induce a relatively low change in energetic metabolism as compared with cardiovascular and resistance exercise but require a high level of cognitive demand.3 Maintaining balance and preventing falls require cognitive engagement, such as information processing, attention, and executive control.4547 Stimulating the vestibular system during balance training has been proposed to be an essential mediator between physical exercise and cognitive function.48,49 This supports the notion that the positive effect of the balance exercise condition in improving performance in the Flanker task and visual search task may be attributed to changes in information processing, attention, and the ability to manage visual and spatial information.3 A further line of evidence supporting the beneficial effect of balance exercise for improving cognition is provided by a recent study that demonstrated that 12 weeks of balance training induced structural plasticity in brain regions involved in visual–vestibular processing and in high cognitive functions,30 thus suggesting that stimulating vestibular system pathways might mediate positive effects of exercise on cognition.

The findings of the present study should be interpreted considering limitations. First, it is important to note the potential effect of the timing between exercise cessation and cognitive testing, which has been suggested to have a possible influence on the beneficial effect of acute exercise.17,27 In fact, although cognitive tests were performed immediately after the cessation of the exercise, the participants were tested using the same order of the tests, beginning with the clinical reaction time, followed by the visual search task and by the Flanker task (30 s, 2 min, and 7 min from the end of the exercise, respectively). Second, it has been shown that individuals within most populations may experience computer anxiety.50 It has also been suggested that individuals with a high level of anxiety may perform more poorly on computerized tests on cognitive abilities with respect to their nonanxious counterparts.51 Although this study tested relatively young and educated participants, who also performed a familiarization session with the tasks, it is possible that the participants might have experienced anxiety when performing the computer-based cognitive tasks, possibly influencing their performance. Third, we were not able to depict a portrait of the neurobiological mechanisms that occurred during a single bout of aerobic and balance exercises and within the following cognitive tasks. Further studies could use the current experimental paradigm and consider including a resistance exercise condition, while measuring functional neuroimaging activities (eg, near infrared spectroscopy,52 functional magnetic resonance53) during both exercise and cognitive tasks to effectively establish whether brain function would be different in response to an aerobic exercise and a balance exercise session.

Conclusions

The findings of the current study provide further evidence on the beneficial effect of an acute bout of aerobic exercise with moderate intensity on cognitive performance. Performance in executive control, perceptual speed, and simple reaction time were enhanced after an acute bout of aerobic exercise, as well as after balance exercises. In summary, these findings highlight that both types of exercise (aerobic, more metabolic and less cognitively demanding; balance, more cognitively and less metabolically demanding) were able to positively affect simple reaction time performance, perceptual speed, and executive control independently of physiological adjustments occurring during aerobic or balance exercise. Importantly, the balance exercises did not appear to be inferior to aerobic exercise in enhancing executive control and perceptual speed. In light of the fact that physical activity has been proposed to have protective effects on cognition and the brain, these findings may be particularly important also for individuals with cardiorespiratory deficiencies who cannot participate in moderate-intensity cardiovascular activities. Balance activity could contribute not only to preventing falls in older individuals, resulting in decreased functional independence and quality of life, but also for stimulating cognition or delaying an age-related decline of cognitive functions.

Acknowledgments

This study was partially funded by RIN Grant 19E00851 and ANR Grant ANR-19-CE28-0013 by P.I.

References

  • 1.

    McMorris T, Tomporowski PD, Audiffren M. Exercise and Cognitive Function. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2009.

  • 2.

    Hötting K, Röder B. Beneficial effects of physical exercise on neuroplasticity and cognition. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37(9):22432257. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.04.005

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Voelcker-Rehage C, Niemann C. Structural and functional brain changes related to different types of physical activity across the life span. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37(9):22682295. PubMed ID: 23399048 doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.01.028

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Sanders LMJ, Hortobágyi T, la Bastide-van Gemert S, van der Zee EA, van Heuvelen MJG. Dose-response relationship between exercise and cognitive function in older adults with and without cognitive impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2019;14(1):e0210036. PubMed ID: 30629631 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0210036

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Tomporowski PD. Effects of acute bouts of exercise on cognition. Acta Psychol. 2003;112(3):297324. doi:10.1016/S0001-6918(02)00134-8

  • 6.

    Chang YK, Labban JD, Gapin JI, Etnier JL. The effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance: a meta-analysis. Brain Res. 2012;1453:87101. PubMed ID: 22480735 doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2012.02.068

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Hillman CH, Motl RW, Pontifex MB, et al. Physical activity and cognitive function in a cross-section of younger and older community-dwelling individuals. Health Psychol. 2006;25(6):678687. PubMed ID: 17100496 doi:10.1037/0278-6133.25.6.678

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Diamond A. Executive functions. Annu Rev Psychol. 2013;64(1):135168. PubMed ID: 23020641 doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750

  • 9.

    Kamijo K, Hayashi Y, Sakai T, Yahiro T, Tanaka K, Nishihira Y. Acute effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive function in older adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2009;64(3):356363. PubMed ID: 19363089 doi:10.1093/geronb/gbp030

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Polich J, Kok A. Cognitive and biological determinants of P300: an integrative review. Biol Psychol. 1995;41(2):103146. PubMed ID: 8534788 doi:10.1016/0301-0511(95)05130-9

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Hillman CH, Snook EM, Jerome GJ. Acute cardiovascular exercise and executive control function. Int J Psychophysiol. 2003;48(3):307314. PubMed ID: 12798990 doi:10.1016/S0167-8760(03)00080-1

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    McMorris T, Graydon J. The effect of exercise on cognitive performance in soccer-specific tests. J Sports Sci. 1997;15(5):459468. PubMed ID: 9386203 doi:10.1080/026404197367092

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Aks DJ. Influence of exercise on visual search: implications for mediating cognitive mechanisms. Percept Mot Skills. 1998;87(3):771783. doi:10.2466/pms.1998.87.3.771

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Voelcker-Rehage C, Godde B, Staudinger UM. Cardiovascular and coordination training differentially improve cognitive performance and neural processing in older adults. Front Hum Neurosci. 2011;5:26. PubMed ID: 21441997 doi:10.3389/fnhum.2011.00026

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Davranche K, Burle B, Audiffren M, Hasbroucq T. Physical exercise facilitates motor processes in simple reaction time performance: an electromyographic analysis. Neurosci Lett. 2006;396(1):5456. PubMed ID: 16406344 doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2005.11.008

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Johnson W, Deary IJ. Placing inspection time, reaction time, and perceptual speed in the broader context of cognitive ability: the VPR model in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Intelligence. 2011;39(5):405417. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2011.07.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Gothe N, Pontifex MB, Hillman C, McAuley E. The acute effects of yoga on executive function. J Phys Act Health. 2013;10(4):488495. PubMed ID: 22820158 doi:10.1123/jpah.10.4.488

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Pesce C. Shifting the focus from quantitative to qualitative exercise characteristics in exercise and cognition research. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2012;34(6):766786. PubMed ID: 23204358 doi:10.1123/jsep.34.6.766

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Schmidt M, Jäger K, Egger F, Roebers CM, Conzelmann A. Cognitively engaging chronic physical activity, but not aerobic exercise, affects executive functions in primary school children: a group-randomized controlled trial. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2015;37(6):575591. PubMed ID: 26866766 doi:10.1123/jsep.2015-0069

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Tomporowski PD, McCullick B, Pendleton DM, Pesce C. Exercise and children’s cognition: the role of exercise characteristics and a place for metacognition. J Sport Health Sci. 2015;4(1):4755. doi:10.1016/j.jshs.2014.09.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Pesce C, Crova C, Marchetti R, et al. Searching for cognitively optimal challenge point in physical activity for children with typical and atypical motor development. Ment Health Phys Act. 2013;6(3):172180. doi:10.1016/j.mhpa.2013.07.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Jäger K, Schmidt M, Conzelmann A, Roebers CM. Cognitive and physiological effects of an acute physical activity intervention in elementary school children. Front Psychol. 2014;5:1473.doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01473

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Borel L, Alescio-Lautier B. Posture and cognition in the elderly: interaction and contribution to the rehabilitation strategies. Neurophysiol Clin. 2014;44(1):95107. PubMed ID: 24502910 doi:10.1016/j.neucli.2013.10.129

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Faugloire E, Bardy BG, Merhi O, Stoffregen TA. Exploring coordination dynamics of the postural system with real-time visual feedback. Neurosci Lett. 2005;374(2):136141. PubMed ID: 15644280 doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2004.10.043

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Rogge A-K, Röder B, Zech A, et al. Balance training improves memory and spatial cognition in healthy adults. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):5661. PubMed ID: 28720898 doi:10.1038/s41598-017-06071-9

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Bray NW, Smart RR, Jakobi JM, Jones GR. Exercise prescription to reverse frailty. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016;41(10):11121116. PubMed ID: 27649859 doi:10.1139/apnm-2016-0226

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Weng T, Pierce G, Darling W, Voss M. Differential effects of acute exercise on distinct aspects of executive function. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015;47(7):14601469. PubMed ID: 25304335 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000542

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Riebe D, Ehrman JK, Liguori G, Magal M. ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Hrysomallis C. Balance ability and athletic performance. Sports Med. 2011;41(3):221232. PubMed ID: 21395364 doi:10.2165/11538560-000000000-00000

  • 30.

    Rogge A-K, Röder B, Zech A, Hötting K. Exercise-induced neuroplasticity: balance training increases cortical thickness in visual and vestibular cortical regions. Neuroimage. 2018;179:471479. PubMed ID: 29959048 doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.06.065

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Trecroci A, Cavaggioni L, Lastella M, et al. Effects of traditional balance and slackline training on physical performance and perceived enjoyment in young soccer players. Res Sports Med. 2018;26(4):450461. PubMed ID: 29963921 doi:10.1080/15438627.2018.1492392

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Eckner JT, Whitacre RD, Kirsch NL, Richardson JK. Evaluating a clinical measure of reaction time: an observational study. Percept Mot Skills. 2009;108(3):717720. PubMed ID: 19725308 doi:10.2466/pms.108.3.717-720

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Treisman A. Focused attention in the perception and retrieval of multidimensional stimuli. Percept Psychophys. 1977;22(1):111. doi:10.3758/BF03206074

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Eriksen BA, Eriksen CW. Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Percept Psychophys. 1974;16(1):143149. doi:10.3758/BF03203267

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Routledge; 1988.

  • 36.

    Budde H, Voelcker-Rehage C, Pietraßyk-Kendziorra S, Ribeiro P, Tidow G. Acute coordinative exercise improves attentional performance in adolescents. Neurosci Lett. 2008;441(2):219223. PubMed ID: 18602754 doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2008.06.024

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Hillman CH, Erickson KI, Kramer AF. Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2008;9(1):5865. PubMed ID: 18094706 doi:10.1038/nrn2298

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Colcombe S, Kramer AF. Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults: a meta-analytic study. Psychol Sci. 2003;14(2):125130. PubMed ID: 12661673 doi:10.1111/1467-9280.t01-1-01430

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Tyndall AV, Clark CM, Anderson TJ, et al. Protective effects of exercise on cognition and brain health in older adults. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2018;46(4):215223. PubMed ID: 30001269 doi:10.1249/JES.0000000000000161

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Chaddock L, Erickson KI, Prakash RS, et al. A functional MRI investigation of the association between childhood aerobic fitness and neurocognitive control. Biol Psychol. 2012;89(1):260268. PubMed ID: 22061423 doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2011.10.017

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Bullock T, Giesbrecht B. Acute exercise and aerobic fitness influence selective attention during visual search. Front Psychol. 2014;5:1290. PubMed ID: 25426094 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01290

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    McMorris T, Keen P. Effect of exercise on simple reaction times of recreational athletes. Percept Mot Skills. 1994;78(1):123130. doi:10.2466/pms.1994.78.1.123

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Roig M, Nordbrandt S, Geertsen SS, Nielsen JB. The effects of cardiovascular exercise on human memory: a review with meta-analysis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37(8):16451666. PubMed ID: 23806438 doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.06.012

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Knaepen K, Goekint M, Heyman EM, Meeusen R. Neuroplasticity—exercise-induced response of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Sports Med. 2010;40(9):765801. PubMed ID: 20726622 doi:10.2165/11534530-000000000-00000

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Lajoie Y, Teasdale N, Bard C, Fleury M. Attentional demands for static and dynamic equilibrium. Exp Brain Res. 1993;97(1):139144. PubMed ID: 8131825 doi:10.1007/BF00228824

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    van Schoor NM, Smit JH, Pluijm SMF, Jonker C, Lips P. Different cognitive functions in relation to falls among older persons. Immediate memory as an independent risk factor for falls. J Clin Epidemiol. 2002;55(9):855862. PubMed ID: 12393072 doi:10.1016/S0895-4356(02)00438-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Shubert T, McCulloch K, Hartman M, Giuliani C. The effect of an exercise-based balance intervention on physical and cognitive performance for older adults. J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2010;33(4):157164. PubMed ID: 21717919

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Smith PF, Darlington CL, Zheng Y. Move it or lose it--is stimulation of the vestibular system necessary for normal spatial memory? Hippocampus. 2010;20(1):3643. PubMed ID: 19405142

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Monno A, Temprado J-J, Zanone P-G, Laurent M. The interplay of attention and bimanual coordination dynamics. Acta Psychol. 2002;110(2–3):187211. doi:10.1016/S0001-6918(02)00033-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Smith B, Caputi P. Cognitive interference model of computer anxiety: implications for computer-based assessment. Comput Hum Behav. 2007;23(3):14811498. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2005.07.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Shermis MD, Lombard D. Effects of computer-based test administrations on test anxiety and performance. Comput Hum Behav. 1998;14(1):111123. doi:10.1016/S0747-5632(97)00035-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    Formenti D, Perpetuini D, Iodice P, et al. Effects of knee extension with different speeds of movement on muscle and cerebral oxygenation. PeerJ. 2018;6:e5704. PubMed ID: 30310747 doi:10.7717/peerj.5704

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Voelcker-Rehage C, Godde B, Staudinger UM. Physical and motor fitness are both related to cognition in old age. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;31(1):167176. PubMed ID: 20092563 doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2009.07014.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

Formenti, Cavaggioni, Duca, Trecroci, Rapelli, and Alberti are with the Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy. Formenti is with the Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy. Komar is with the National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore. Iodice is with the Centre d’Etude des Transformations des Activités Physiques et Sportives (CETAPS) EA 3832, University of Rouen Normandy, Mont-Saint-Aignan, France.

Trecroci (athostrec@gmail.com; athos.trecroci@unimi.it) is corresponding author.
  • View in gallery

    —Schematic representation of the experimental design.

  • View in gallery

    —Effect of aerobic and balance exercise conditions on clinical reaction time. #Significant difference between pre and post by Bonferroni adjustment: P < .01. §Significant difference between pre and post by Bonferroni adjustment: P < .001.

  • View in gallery

    —Effect of aerobic and balance exercise conditions on reaction time for each item trial in the visual search task. *Significant difference between pre and post by Bonferroni adjustment: P < .05. #Significant difference between pre and post by Bonferroni adjustment: P < .01.

  • View in gallery

    —Effect of aerobic and balance exercise conditions on reaction time for congruent and incongruent condition in the Flanker task. #Significant difference between pre and post by Bonferroni adjustment: P < .01.

  • 1.

    McMorris T, Tomporowski PD, Audiffren M. Exercise and Cognitive Function. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2009.

  • 2.

    Hötting K, Röder B. Beneficial effects of physical exercise on neuroplasticity and cognition. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37(9):22432257. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.04.005

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Voelcker-Rehage C, Niemann C. Structural and functional brain changes related to different types of physical activity across the life span. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37(9):22682295. PubMed ID: 23399048 doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.01.028

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Sanders LMJ, Hortobágyi T, la Bastide-van Gemert S, van der Zee EA, van Heuvelen MJG. Dose-response relationship between exercise and cognitive function in older adults with and without cognitive impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2019;14(1):e0210036. PubMed ID: 30629631 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0210036

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Tomporowski PD. Effects of acute bouts of exercise on cognition. Acta Psychol. 2003;112(3):297324. doi:10.1016/S0001-6918(02)00134-8

  • 6.

    Chang YK, Labban JD, Gapin JI, Etnier JL. The effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance: a meta-analysis. Brain Res. 2012;1453:87101. PubMed ID: 22480735 doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2012.02.068

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Hillman CH, Motl RW, Pontifex MB, et al. Physical activity and cognitive function in a cross-section of younger and older community-dwelling individuals. Health Psychol. 2006;25(6):678687. PubMed ID: 17100496 doi:10.1037/0278-6133.25.6.678

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Diamond A. Executive functions. Annu Rev Psychol. 2013;64(1):135168. PubMed ID: 23020641 doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750

  • 9.

    Kamijo K, Hayashi Y, Sakai T, Yahiro T, Tanaka K, Nishihira Y. Acute effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive function in older adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2009;64(3):356363. PubMed ID: 19363089 doi:10.1093/geronb/gbp030

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Polich J, Kok A. Cognitive and biological determinants of P300: an integrative review. Biol Psychol. 1995;41(2):103146. PubMed ID: 8534788 doi:10.1016/0301-0511(95)05130-9

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Hillman CH, Snook EM, Jerome GJ. Acute cardiovascular exercise and executive control function. Int J Psychophysiol. 2003;48(3):307314. PubMed ID: 12798990 doi:10.1016/S0167-8760(03)00080-1

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    McMorris T, Graydon J. The effect of exercise on cognitive performance in soccer-specific tests. J Sports Sci. 1997;15(5):459468. PubMed ID: 9386203 doi:10.1080/026404197367092

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Aks DJ. Influence of exercise on visual search: implications for mediating cognitive mechanisms. Percept Mot Skills. 1998;87(3):771783. doi:10.2466/pms.1998.87.3.771

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Voelcker-Rehage C, Godde B, Staudinger UM. Cardiovascular and coordination training differentially improve cognitive performance and neural processing in older adults. Front Hum Neurosci. 2011;5:26. PubMed ID: 21441997 doi:10.3389/fnhum.2011.00026

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Davranche K, Burle B, Audiffren M, Hasbroucq T. Physical exercise facilitates motor processes in simple reaction time performance: an electromyographic analysis. Neurosci Lett. 2006;396(1):5456. PubMed ID: 16406344 doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2005.11.008

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Johnson W, Deary IJ. Placing inspection time, reaction time, and perceptual speed in the broader context of cognitive ability: the VPR model in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Intelligence. 2011;39(5):405417. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2011.07.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Gothe N, Pontifex MB, Hillman C, McAuley E. The acute effects of yoga on executive function. J Phys Act Health. 2013;10(4):488495. PubMed ID: 22820158 doi:10.1123/jpah.10.4.488

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Pesce C. Shifting the focus from quantitative to qualitative exercise characteristics in exercise and cognition research. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2012;34(6):766786. PubMed ID: 23204358 doi:10.1123/jsep.34.6.766

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Schmidt M, Jäger K, Egger F, Roebers CM, Conzelmann A. Cognitively engaging chronic physical activity, but not aerobic exercise, affects executive functions in primary school children: a group-randomized controlled trial. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2015;37(6):575591. PubMed ID: 26866766 doi:10.1123/jsep.2015-0069

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Tomporowski PD, McCullick B, Pendleton DM, Pesce C. Exercise and children’s cognition: the role of exercise characteristics and a place for metacognition. J Sport Health Sci. 2015;4(1):4755. doi:10.1016/j.jshs.2014.09.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Pesce C, Crova C, Marchetti R, et al. Searching for cognitively optimal challenge point in physical activity for children with typical and atypical motor development. Ment Health Phys Act. 2013;6(3):172180. doi:10.1016/j.mhpa.2013.07.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Jäger K, Schmidt M, Conzelmann A, Roebers CM. Cognitive and physiological effects of an acute physical activity intervention in elementary school children. Front Psychol. 2014;5:1473.doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01473

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Borel L, Alescio-Lautier B. Posture and cognition in the elderly: interaction and contribution to the rehabilitation strategies. Neurophysiol Clin. 2014;44(1):95107. PubMed ID: 24502910 doi:10.1016/j.neucli.2013.10.129

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Faugloire E, Bardy BG, Merhi O, Stoffregen TA. Exploring coordination dynamics of the postural system with real-time visual feedback. Neurosci Lett. 2005;374(2):136141. PubMed ID: 15644280 doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2004.10.043

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Rogge A-K, Röder B, Zech A, et al. Balance training improves memory and spatial cognition in healthy adults. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):5661. PubMed ID: 28720898 doi:10.1038/s41598-017-06071-9

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Bray NW, Smart RR, Jakobi JM, Jones GR. Exercise prescription to reverse frailty. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016;41(10):11121116. PubMed ID: 27649859 doi:10.1139/apnm-2016-0226

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Weng T, Pierce G, Darling W, Voss M. Differential effects of acute exercise on distinct aspects of executive function. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015;47(7):14601469. PubMed ID: 25304335 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000542

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Riebe D, Ehrman JK, Liguori G, Magal M. ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Hrysomallis C. Balance ability and athletic performance. Sports Med. 2011;41(3):221232. PubMed ID: 21395364 doi:10.2165/11538560-000000000-00000

  • 30.

    Rogge A-K, Röder B, Zech A, Hötting K. Exercise-induced neuroplasticity: balance training increases cortical thickness in visual and vestibular cortical regions. Neuroimage. 2018;179:471479. PubMed ID: 29959048 doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.06.065

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Trecroci A, Cavaggioni L, Lastella M, et al. Effects of traditional balance and slackline training on physical performance and perceived enjoyment in young soccer players. Res Sports Med. 2018;26(4):450461. PubMed ID: 29963921 doi:10.1080/15438627.2018.1492392

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Eckner JT, Whitacre RD, Kirsch NL, Richardson JK. Evaluating a clinical measure of reaction time: an observational study. Percept Mot Skills. 2009;108(3):717720. PubMed ID: 19725308 doi:10.2466/pms.108.3.717-720

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Treisman A. Focused attention in the perception and retrieval of multidimensional stimuli. Percept Psychophys. 1977;22(1):111. doi:10.3758/BF03206074

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Eriksen BA, Eriksen CW. Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Percept Psychophys. 1974;16(1):143149. doi:10.3758/BF03203267

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Routledge; 1988.

  • 36.

    Budde H, Voelcker-Rehage C, Pietraßyk-Kendziorra S, Ribeiro P, Tidow G. Acute coordinative exercise improves attentional performance in adolescents. Neurosci Lett. 2008;441(2):219223. PubMed ID: 18602754 doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2008.06.024

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Hillman CH, Erickson KI, Kramer AF. Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2008;9(1):5865. PubMed ID: 18094706 doi:10.1038/nrn2298

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Colcombe S, Kramer AF. Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults: a meta-analytic study. Psychol Sci. 2003;14(2):125130. PubMed ID: 12661673 doi:10.1111/1467-9280.t01-1-01430

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Tyndall AV, Clark CM, Anderson TJ, et al. Protective effects of exercise on cognition and brain health in older adults. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2018;46(4):215223. PubMed ID: 30001269 doi:10.1249/JES.0000000000000161

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Chaddock L, Erickson KI, Prakash RS, et al. A functional MRI investigation of the association between childhood aerobic fitness and neurocognitive control. Biol Psychol. 2012;89(1):260268. PubMed ID: 22061423 doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2011.10.017

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Bullock T, Giesbrecht B. Acute exercise and aerobic fitness influence selective attention during visual search. Front Psychol. 2014;5:1290. PubMed ID: 25426094 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01290

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    McMorris T, Keen P. Effect of exercise on simple reaction times of recreational athletes. Percept Mot Skills. 1994;78(1):123130. doi:10.2466/pms.1994.78.1.123

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Roig M, Nordbrandt S, Geertsen SS, Nielsen JB. The effects of cardiovascular exercise on human memory: a review with meta-analysis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37(8):16451666. PubMed ID: 23806438 doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.06.012

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Knaepen K, Goekint M, Heyman EM, Meeusen R. Neuroplasticity—exercise-induced response of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Sports Med. 2010;40(9):765801. PubMed ID: 20726622 doi:10.2165/11534530-000000000-00000

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Lajoie Y, Teasdale N, Bard C, Fleury M. Attentional demands for static and dynamic equilibrium. Exp Brain Res. 1993;97(1):139144. PubMed ID: 8131825 doi:10.1007/BF00228824

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    van Schoor NM, Smit JH, Pluijm SMF, Jonker C, Lips P. Different cognitive functions in relation to falls among older persons. Immediate memory as an independent risk factor for falls. J Clin Epidemiol. 2002;55(9):855862. PubMed ID: 12393072 doi:10.1016/S0895-4356(02)00438-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Shubert T, McCulloch K, Hartman M, Giuliani C. The effect of an exercise-based balance intervention on physical and cognitive performance for older adults. J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2010;33(4):157164. PubMed ID: 21717919

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Smith PF, Darlington CL, Zheng Y. Move it or lose it--is stimulation of the vestibular system necessary for normal spatial memory? Hippocampus. 2010;20(1):3643. PubMed ID: 19405142

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Monno A, Temprado J-J, Zanone P-G, Laurent M. The interplay of attention and bimanual coordination dynamics. Acta Psychol. 2002;110(2–3):187211. doi:10.1016/S0001-6918(02)00033-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Smith B, Caputi P. Cognitive interference model of computer anxiety: implications for computer-based assessment. Comput Hum Behav. 2007;23(3):14811498. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2005.07.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Shermis MD, Lombard D. Effects of computer-based test administrations on test anxiety and performance. Comput Hum Behav. 1998;14(1):111123. doi:10.1016/S0747-5632(97)00035-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    Formenti D, Perpetuini D, Iodice P, et al. Effects of knee extension with different speeds of movement on muscle and cerebral oxygenation. PeerJ. 2018;6:e5704. PubMed ID: 30310747 doi:10.7717/peerj.5704

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Voelcker-Rehage C, Godde B, Staudinger UM. Physical and motor fitness are both related to cognition in old age. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;31(1):167176. PubMed ID: 20092563 doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2009.07014.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 2 2 0
Full Text Views 1179 1179 570
PDF Downloads 201 201 65