Physical Activity and Sitting Time From 16 to 24 Weeks of Pregnancy to 12, 24, and 48 Months Postpartum: Findings From the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $117.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $156.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $222.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $296.00

Background: Physical activity levels decrease during pregnancy, and the time course of return to prepregnancy levels is unclear. This study aimed to describe changes in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and sitting time from 16 to 24 weeks of pregnancy to 12, 24, and 48 months postpartum in women with different education levels in Brazil. Methods: Data from 4000 mothers of children enrolled in the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort were analyzed. The women were interviewed between 16 and 24 weeks of pregnancy and when their children were aged 12, 24, and 48 months. The LTPA and sitting time were self-reported. Results: Only 15.7% of the women reported any LTPA during pregnancy; this declined to 7.9% at 12 months postpartum; it was 16.8% at 24 months and 23.2% at 48 months. On average, participants spent a mean (SD) of 6.4 (3.9), 4.2 (3.2), 4.3 (3.3), and 4.4 (3.3) hours per day sitting during pregnancy, and at 12, 24, and 48 months after the birth, respectively. Both any LTPA and high sitting (8+ h/d) were consistently higher among women with higher education. Conclusion: After 24 months postpartum, LTPA levels had returned to or exceeded pregnancy levels, but sitting time remained lower than during pregnancy.

Mielke and Brown are with the School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia. Mielke, Crochemore-Silva, Silveira, and Bertoldi are with the Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil. Crochemore-Silva and Domingues are with the Postgraduate Program in Physical Education, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.

Mielke (g.ivenmielke@uq.edu.au) is corresponding author.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Material (PDF 272 KB)
  • 1.

    US Department of Health and Human Services. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. 2nd ed. Wasington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Mielke GI, da Silva ICM, Kolbe-Alexander TL, Brown WJ. Shifting the physical inactivity curve worldwide by closing the gender gap. Sports Med. 2018;48(2):481489. PubMed ID: 28647914 doi:10.1007/s40279-017-0754-7

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Sallis JF, Bull F, Guthold R, et al. Progress in physical activity over the olympic quadrennium. Lancet. 2016;388(10051):13251336. PubMed ID: 27475270 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30581-5

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Brown WJ, Heesch KC, Miller YD. Life events and changing physical activity patterns in women at different life stages. Ann Behav Med. 2009;37(3):294305. PubMed ID: 19506989 doi:10.1007/s12160-009-9099-2

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Coll CV, Domingues MR, Hallal PC, et al. Changes in leisure-time physical activity among Brazilian pregnant women: comparison between two birth cohort studies (2004–2015). BMC Public Health. 2017;17(1):119. PubMed ID: 28122524 doi:10.1186/s12889-017-4036-y

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Coll C, Domingues M, Santos I, Matijasevich A, Horta BL, Hallal PC. Changes in leisure-time physical activity from the prepregnancy to the postpartum period: 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study. J Phys Act Health. 2016;13(4):361365. PubMed ID: 26383057 doi:10.1123/jpah.2015-0324

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Borodulin K, Evenson KR, Herring AH. Physical activity patterns during pregnancy through postpartum. BMC Womens Health. 2009;9(1):32. PubMed ID: 19925650 doi:10.1186/1472-6874-9-32

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    da Silva SG, Ricardo LI, Evenson KR, Hallal PC. Leisure-time physical activity in pregnancy and maternal-child health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and cohort studies. Sports Med. 2017;47(2):295317. PubMed ID: 27282925 doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0565-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG committee opinion no. 650: physical activity and exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Obstet Gynecol. 2015;126(6):e135e142. PubMed ID: 26595585 doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000001214

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Mottola MF, Davenport MH, Ruchat SM, et al. 2019 Canadian guideline for physical activity throughout pregnancy. Br J Sports Med. 2018;52(21):13391346. PubMed ID: 30337460 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2018-100056

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Muller WA, Mielke GI, da Silva ICM, Silveira MF, Domingues MR. Physical activity during pregnancy and preterm birth: findings from the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study. J Phys Act Health. 2020;17(11):10651074 . PubMed ID: 32947261 doi:10.1123/jpah.2019-0604

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Ekelund U, Brown WJ, Steene-Johannessen J, et al. Do the associations of sedentary behaviour with cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer mortality differ by physical activity level? A systematic review and harmonised meta-analysis of data from 850 060 participants. Br J Sports Med. 2019;53(14):886894. PubMed ID: 29991570 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2017-098963

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Ekelund U, Steene-Johannessen J, Brown WJ, et al. Does physical activity attenuate, or even eliminate, the detrimental association of sitting time with mortality? A harmonised meta-analysis of data from more than 1 million men and women. Lancet. 2016;388(10051):13021310. PubMed ID: 27475271 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30370-1

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Fazzi C, Saunders DH, Linton K, Norman JE, Reynolds RM. Sedentary behaviours during pregnancy: a systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017;14(1):32. PubMed ID: 28298219 doi:10.1186/s12966-017-0485-z

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Opinion AC. Physical activity and exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Obstet Gynecol. 2020;135(4):e178e188. PubMed ID: 32217980 doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000003772

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    da Silva ICM, Mielke GI, Bertoldi AD, et al. Overall and leisure-time physical activity among Brazilian adults: national survey based on the global physical activity questionnaire. J Phys Act Health. 2018;15(3):212218. PubMed ID: 28872402 doi:10.1123/jpah.2017-0262

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Mielke GI, Malta DC, de Sa GB, Reis RS, Hallal PC. Regional differences and correlates of leisure time physical activity in Brazil: results from the Brazilian National Health Survey-2013. Rev Bras Epidemiol. 2015;18(suppl 2):158169. PubMed ID: 27008611 doi:10.1590/1980-5497201500060014

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Mielke GI, Brown WJ. Physical activity and the prevention of chronic illness in the BRICS nations: issues relating to gender equality. J Sport Health Sci. 2019;8(6):507508. PubMed ID: 31720057 doi:10.1016/j.jshs.2019.08.001

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Hallal PC, Bertoldi AD, Domingues MR, et al. Cohort profile: the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study. Int J Epidemiol. 2018;47(4):10481048h. PubMed ID: 29126133 doi:10.1093/ije/dyx219

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Bertoldi AD, Barros FC, Hallal PRC, et al. Trends and inequalities in maternal and child health in a Brazilian city: methodology and sociodemographic description of four population-based birth cohort studies, 1982–2015. Int J Epidemiol. 2019;48(suppl 1):i4i15. PubMed ID: 30883654 doi:10.1093/ije/dyy170

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Herrmann SD, et al. 2011 Compendium of physical activities: a second update of codes and MET values. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(8):15751581. PubMed ID: 21681120 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31821ece12

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Evenson KR, Mottola MF, Owe KM, Rousham EK, Brown WJ. Summary of international guidelines for physical activity after pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2014;69(7):407414. PubMed ID: 25112589 doi:10.1097/OGX.0000000000000077

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Evenson KR, Barakat R, Brown WJ, et al. Guidelines for physical activity during pregnancy: comparisons from around the world. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2014;8(2):102121. PubMed ID: 25346651 doi:10.1177/1559827613498204

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Mielke GI, Crochemore MdSI, Gomersall SR, Owen N, Hallal PC. Reliability of a multi-domain sedentary behaviour questionnaire and comparability to an overall sitting time estimate. J Sports Sci. 2020;38(3):351356. PubMed ID: 31818191 doi:10.1080/02640414.2019.1701794

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Merkx A, Ausems M, Bude L, de Vries R, Nieuwenhuijze MJ. Factors affecting perceived change in physical activity in pregnancy. Midwifery. 2017;51:1623. PubMed ID: 28505580 doi:10.1016/j.midw.2017.05.007

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Skreden M, Overby NC, Sagedal LR, et al. Changes in mode of transportation to work or school from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in the Norwegian fit for delivery study. Prev Med Rep. 2015;2:429435. PubMed ID: 26844101 doi:10.1016/j.pmedr.2015.05.002

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Padmapriya N, Shen L, Soh SE, et al. Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns before and during pregnancy in a multi-ethnic sample of Asian women in Singapore. Matern Child Health J. 2015;19(11):25232535. PubMed ID: 26140834 doi:10.1007/s10995-015-1773-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Gaston A, Cramp A. Exercise during pregnancy: a review of patterns and determinants. J Sci Med Sport. 2011;14(4):299305. PubMed ID: 21420359 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2011.02.006

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Mielke GI, da Silva IC, Owen N, Hallal PC. Brazilian adults’ sedentary behaviors by life domain: population-based study. PLoS One. 2014;9(3):e91614. PubMed ID: 24619086 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091614

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Mielke GI, Ricardo L, Wendt A, Christofaro D, Owen N. Descriptive epidemiology of high TV-viewing time in Brazilian adults. Rev Bras Ati Fis Saúde. 2018;23:16. doi:10.12820/rbafs.23e0020

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Miller YD, Brown WJ. Determinants of active leisure for women with young children—an “ethic of care” prevails. Leis Sci. 2005;27(5):405420. doi:10.1080/01490400500227308

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Prince SA, Reed JL, Martinello N, et al. Why are adult women physically active? A systematic review of prospective cohort studies to identify intrapersonal, social environmental and physical environmental determinants. Obes Rev. 2016;17(10):919944. PubMed ID: 27465602 doi:10.1111/obr.12432

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Chasan-Taber L, Schmidt MD, Roberts DE, Hosmer D, Markenson G, Freedson PS. Development and validation of a pregnancy physical activity questionnaire. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36(10):17501760. PubMed ID: 15595297 doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000142303.49306.0D

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Evenson KR, Chasan-Taber L, Symons Downs D, Pearce EE. Review of self-reported physical activity assessments for pregnancy: summary of the evidence for validity and reliability. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2012;26(5):479494. PubMed ID: 22882792 doi:10.1111/j.1365-3016.2012.01311.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Barone Gibbs B, Paley JL, Jones MA, Whitaker KM, Connolly CP, Catov JM. Validity of self-reported and objectively measured sedentary behavior in pregnancy. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2020;20(1):99. PubMed ID: 32046663 doi:10.1186/s12884-020-2771-z

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Mielke GI, Hallal PC, Malta DC, Lee IM. Time trends of physical activity and television viewing time in Brazil: 2006–2012. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2014;11(1):101. PubMed ID: 25124462 doi:10.1186/s12966-014-0101-4

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    da Silva IC, Knuth AG, Mielke GI, Azevedo MR, Goncalves H, Hallal PC. Trends in leisure-time physical activity in a southern Brazilian city: 2003–2010. J Phys Act Health. 2014;11(7):13131317. PubMed ID: 24176929 doi:10.1123/jpah.2012-0460

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 48 48 48
Full Text Views 565 565 254
PDF Downloads 67 67 16