Evidence supports the role of physical and social environments in active living, including perception of environment. However, measurement of perceived environments in rural settings is lacking. This study describes the development of the Rural Active Living Perceived Environmental Support Scale (RALPESS).
Premised on social ecological and cognitive perspectives, 85 initial items were generated through a literature review and a mixed-methods investigation of “activity-friendly” environments. Items were organized by resource areas—town center, indoor and outdoor physical activity areas, schools, churches, and areas around the home/neighborhood—and submitted for expert panel review. In 2009, a revised questionnaire was disseminated to adolescents, parents, public school staff, and older adults in 2 rural southeastern United States counties. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was used to explore factor structure (n = 542).
The final analysis yielded 33 items with 7 factors: 1) church facilities, 2) town center connectivity, 3) indoor areas, 4) around the home/neighborhood, 5) town center physical activity resources, 6) school grounds, and 7) outdoor areas.
The RALPESS is a valid, internally consistent, and practically useful instrument to measure perceptions of rural environments in the context of physical activity across the lifespan. Confirmatory factor analysis is recommended to validate factor structure.
Umstattd is with the Dept of Health, Human Performance, and Recreation, Baylor University, Waco, TX, and the Dept of Health Science, College of Human Environmental Sciences, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL. Baller is with the Dept of Health Sciences, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA. Hennessy and Economos are with the John Hancock Center for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Gerald J. and Dorothy R. Friedman, School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA. Hartley is with the Maine Rural Health Research Center, Muskie School of Public Service, University of Southern Maine, Portland, ME. Hyatt is with the Dept of Public Health and Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Tufts University, Boston, MA. Yousefan is with the Hartley and the Maine Rural Health Research Center, Muskie School of Public Service, University of Southern Maine, Portland, ME. Hallam is with the Center for Health Behavior Research, Dept of Health, Exercise Science & Recreation Management, University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS.