Development and Initial Validation of the Impression Motivation in Sport Questionnaire–Team

in Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
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  • 1 Aberystwyth University
  • 2 University of Derby
  • 3 University of Birmingham
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Impression motivation is an important individual difference variable that has been under-researched in sport psychology, partly due to having no appropriate measure. This study was conducted to design a measure of impression motivation in team-sport athletes. Construct validity checks decreased the initial pool of items, factor analysis (n = 310) revealed the structure of the newly developed scale, and exploratory structural equation modeling procedures (n = 406) resulted in a modified scale that retained theoretical integrity and psychometric parsimony. This process produced a 15-item, 4-factor model; the Impression Motivation in Sport Questionnaire–Team (IMSQ-T) is forwarded as a valid measure of the respondent’s dispositional strength of motivation to use self-presentation in striving for four distinct interpersonal objectives: self-development, social identity development, avoidance of negative outcomes, and avoidance of damaging impressions. The availability of this measure has contributed to theoretical development, will facilitate research, and offers a tool for use in applied settings.

Simon Mark Payne and Joanne Hudson are with the Department of Sport & Exercise Science, Institute of Human Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, UK. Sally Akehurst is with Sport & Exercise, School of Science, University of Derby, Derbyshire, UK. Nikos Ntoumanis is with the School of Sport & Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.