Gaze Behaviors During Serve Returns in Tennis: A Comparison Between Intermediate- and High-Skill Players

in Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $84.00

1 year subscription

USD $111.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $159.00

2 year subscription

USD $208.00

The authors studied gaze behaviors in high- and intermediate-skill tennis players while they performed tennis serve returns. Participants returned 40 serves in 4 serve locations while wearing a mobile eye tracker. The ball’s flight path was deconstructed into 3 distinct locations (i.e., ball before bouncing on surface, the bounce area, and ball after bouncing on surface), and gaze behaviors along with quiet-eye (QE) onset and durations were recorded. Results revealed that (a) high-skill players exhibited better return shots than their lower skill counterparts, (b) high-skill players and high-score shots were characterized by longer fixation durations on the ball at prebounce, and (c) longer QE durations were observed for high-skill players and high-score shots. Findings provide valuable insight into the relationship between gaze behaviors, QE, and performance in fast-pace interceptive sports.

Sáenz-Moncaleano and Tenenbaum are with Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL. Basevitch is with the Dept. of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Sáenz-Moncaleano (contact@camilosaenzm.com) is corresponding author.
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology

Article Sections

References

  • AdolpheR.VickersJ.N. & LaPlanteG. (1997). The effects of training visual attention on gaze behaviour and accuracy: A pilot study. International Journal of Sports Vision 42833.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BardC. & FleuryM. (1981). Considering eye movement as a predictor of attainment. In I.M. Cockerill & W.W. MacGillivary (Eds.) Vision and sport (pp. 2841). Cheltenham, UK: Stanley Thomas.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BattagliaP.W. & SchraterP.R. (2007). Humans trade off viewing time and movement duration to improve visuomotor accuracy in a fast reaching task. Journal of Neuroscience 27(26) 69846994. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1309-07.2007

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BennY.WebbT.L.ChangB.P.I.SunY.H.WilkinsonI.D. & FarrowT.F.D. (2014). The neural basis of monitoring goal progress. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8688.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BootsmaR.J. & van WieringenP.C. (1990). Timing an attacking forehand drive in table tennis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 162129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • del CampoV.L.ReinaR.SabidoR. & MorenoF.J. (2012). Comportamiento visual y respuesta de reacción en tenis según el tipo y dirección del golpe. Apuntes de educación física y deportes 107(1) 6168. PubMed doi:10.5672/apunts.2014-0983.es.(2012/1).107.06

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EricssonK.A. & LehmannA.C. (1996). Expert and exceptional performance: Evidence of maximal adaptations to task constraints. Annual Review of Psychology 47273305.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FarrowD. & AbernethyB. (2003). Do expertise and the degree of perception—Action coupling affect natural anticipatory performance? Perception 3211271139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GonzalezC.C.CauserJ.GreyM.J.HumphreysG.W.MiallR.C. & WilliamsA.M. (2017). Exploring the quiet eye in archery using field- and laboratory-based tasks. Brain Research 235(9) 28432855.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GouletC.BardC. & FleuryM. (1989). Expertise differences in preparing to return a tennis serve: A visual information-processing approach. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 11382398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • International Tennis Federation. (2004). International Tennis Number Manual. London, UK: Tennis Development Department of the International Tennis Federation.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • International Tennis Federation. (2015). Rules of Tennis. Retrieved from http://www.itftennis.com/officiating/rulebooks/rules-of-tennis.aspx

    • Export Citation
  • JanelleC.M.HillmanC.H. & HatfieldB.D. (2000). Concurrent measurement of electroencephalographic and ocular indices of attention during rifle shooting: An exploratory case study. International Journal of Sport Vision 62129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KimS.LeeS.RyuD.KimC. & LeeS. (2007). How do national badminton players utilize advanced visual cues to anticipate an attacker’s intent? Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 2997.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KlostermannA.KredelR. & HossnerE.J. (2013). The “quiet eye” and motor performance: Task demands matter! Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 39(5) 12701278. PubMed

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LandM.F. & McLeodP. (2000). From eye movements to actions: How batsmen hit the ball. Nature Neuroscience 313401345.

  • LebeauJ.LiuS.Sáenz-MoncaleanoC.Sanduvete-ChávesS.Chacón-MoscosoS.BeckerB.J. & TenenbaumG. (2016). Quiet eye in sport: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 38(5) 441457. PubMed doi:10.1123/jsep.2015-0123

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LiuS.RitchieJ.S´aenz-MoncaleanoC.WardS.K.PaulsenC.KleinT. . . . TenenbaumG. (2017). 3D technology of Sony Bloggie has no advantage in decision-making of tennis serve direction: A randomized placebo-controlled study. European Journal of Sport Science 17(5) 603610. PubMed doi:10.1080/17461391.2017.1301561

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MannD.L.SpratfordW. & AbernethyB. (2013). The head tracks and gaze predicts: How the world’s best batters hit a ball. PLoS ONE 858289.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MannD.T.CoombesS.MousseauM. & JanelleC. (2011). Quiet eye and the Bereitschafts-potential: Visuomotor mechanisms of expert motor performance. Cognitive Processing 12(3) 223234.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MannD.T.WilliamsA.M.WardP. & JanelleC.M. (2007). Perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 29(4) 457478. PubMed doi:10.1123/jsep.29.4.457

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McHughM.L. (2012). Interrater reliability: The kappa statistic. Biochemia Medica 22(3) 276282. PubMed doi:10.11613/BM.2012.031

  • McLeodP. (1987). Visual reaction and high-speed ball games. Perception 164959.

  • McPhersonS.L. & VickersJ.N. (2004). Cognitive control in motor expertise. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 2274300.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MooreL.J.VineS.J.CookeA.RingC. & WilsonM.R. (2012). Quiet eye training expedites motor learning and aids performance under heightened anxiety: The roles of response programming and external attention. Psychophysiology 49(7) 10051015. PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.2012.01379.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MurrayN.P. & HunfalvayM. (2017). A comparison of visual search strategies of elite and non-elite tennis players through cluster analysis. Journal of Sports Sciences 35(3) 241246. doi:10.1080/02640414.2016.1161215

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PanchukD. & VickersJ.N. (2006). Gaze behaviours of goaltenders under spatial temporal constraints. Human Movement Science 25733752.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ParkS. (2005). The change of gaze behavior, eye-head coordination, and temporal characteristics of swing by task constraints in tennis volley strokes. International Journal of Applied Sport Sciences 175170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PosnerM.I. & RaichleM.E. (1997). Images of mind. New York, NY: Scientific American Library.

  • ReinaR.MorenoF.J. & SanzD. (2007). Visual behavior and motor responses of novice and experienced wheelchair tennis players relative to the service return. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 24(3) 254271. PubMed doi:10.1123/apaq.24.3.254

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RienhoffR.TirpJ.StraußB.BakerJ. & SchorerJ. (2016). The ‘quiet eye’ and motor performance: A systematic review based on Newell’s constraints-led model. Sports Medicine 46(4) 589603. PubMed doi:10.1007/s40279-015-0442-4

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RodriguesS.T.VickersJ.N. & WilliamsA.M. (2002). Head, eye and arm coordination in table tennis: An exploratory study. Journal of Sports Sciences 20171186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SingerR.N.WilliamsA.M.FrehlichS.G.JanelleC.M.RadloS.J.BarbaD.A. & BouchardL.J. (1998). New frontiers in visual search: An exploratory study in live tennis situations. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 69(3) 290296. PubMed doi:10.1080/02701367.1998.10607696

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SohnW.Y. & DoaneS.M. (2003). Roles of working memory capacity and long-term working memory skill in complex task performance. Memory & Cognition 31458466. PubMed doi:10.3758/BF03194403

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TayaS.WindridgeD. & OsmanM. (2013). Trained eyes: Experience promotes adaptive gaze control in dynamic and uncertain visual environments. PLoS ONE 8e7137171380.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TienT.PucherP.H.SodergrenM.H.SriskandarajahK.YangG.Z. & DarziA. (2014). Differences in gaze behaviour of expert and junior surgeons performing open inguinal hernia repair. Surgical Endoscopy 29(2) 405413. PubMed doi:10.1007/s00464-014-3683-7

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VansteenkisteP.CardonG. & LenoirM. (2013). Dealing with head-mounted eye-tracking data. Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Eye Tracking South AfricaNew York, NY5557. doi:10.1145/2509315.2509325

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VansteenkisteP.Van HammeD.VeelaertP.PhilippaertsR.CardonG. & LenoirM. (2014). Cycling around a curve: The effect of cycling speed on steering and gaze behavior. PLoS ONE 9(7) e102792. PubMed doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102792

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VaverkaF. & CernosekM. (2016). Quantitative assessment of the serve speed in tennis. Sport Biomechanics 15(1) 4860. doi:10.1080/14763141.2015.1123763

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VickersJ.N. (1992). Gaze control in putting. Perception 21117132.

  • VickersJ.N. (1996). Control of visual attention during the basketball free throw. American Journal of Sports Medicine 24S93S96.

  • VickersJ.N. (2007). Perception cognition and decision training: The quiet eye in action. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  • VickersJ.N. (2009). Advances in coupling perception and action: The quiet eye as a bidirectional link between gaze, attention, and action. Progress in Brain Research 174279288.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VickersJ.N. (2016). The quiet eye: Origins, controversies, and future directions. Kinesiology Review 5119128. doi:10.1123/kr.2016-0005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VickersJ.N. & AdolpheR.M. (1997). Gaze behaviour during a ball tracking and aiming skill. International Journal of Sports Vision 41827.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VickersJ.N. & WilliamsA.M. (2007). Performing under pressure: The effects of physiological arousal, cognitive anxiety, and gaze control in biathlon. Journal of Motor Behavior 39(5) 381394. PubMed doi:10.3200/JMBR.39.5.381-394

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VineS.J.LeeD.MooreL.J. & WilsonM.R. (2013). Quiet eye and choking: Online control breaks down at the point of performance failure. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 4519881994.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VineS.J.MooreL.J. & WilsonM.R. (2011). Quiet eye training facilitates competitive putting performance in elite golfers. Frontiers in Psychology 2(8) 19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WardP.WilliamsA.M. & BennettS.J. (2002). Visual search and biological motion perception in tennis. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 73(1) 107112. PubMed doi:10.1080/02701367.2002.10608997

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WilliamsA.M.DavidsK.BurwitzL. & WilliamsJ.G. (1993). Visual search and sports performance. Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 25(2) 147204.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WilliamsA.M. & EricssonK.A. (2005). Perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport: Some considerations when applying the expert performance approach. Human Movement Science 24(3) 283307. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.humov.2005.06.002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WilliamsA.M. & WardP. (2007). Anticipation and decision making: Exploring new horizons. In G. Tenenbaum & R.C. Eklund (Eds.) Handbook of sport psychology (3rd ed. pp. 203223). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WilliamsA.M.WardP.KnowlesJ.M. & SmeetonN.J. (2002). Anticipation skill in a real-world measurement, and transfer in tennis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 8(4) 259270. PubMed

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ZaalF.T.J.M & MichaelsC.F. (2003). The information for catching fly balls: Judging and intercepting virtual balls in a CAVE. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 29(3) 537555. PubMed

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Article Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 12 12 12
Full Text Views 0 0 0
PDF Downloads 0 0 0

Altmetric Badge

PubMed

Google Scholar