Disguise and Deception of Action Outcomes Through Sports Garment Design Impair Anticipation Judgments

in Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $84.00

1 year subscription

USD  $111.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $159.00

2 year subscription

USD  $208.00

The ability to disguise and deceive action outcomes was examined by manipulating sports garments. In Experiment 1, those with higher and lower skill levels in anticipation predicted the throw direction of an opponent who wore a garment designed to disguise kinetic-chain information. Higher skill anticipators were more adversely affected by the disguise garment than the lower skill anticipators, demonstrating that disguise removed the anticipation advantage. In Experiment 2, using the same occlusion methodology, the effect of deception was examined using 2 garments designed to create visual illusions of motion across the proximal-to-distal sequence of the thrower’s action and compared with a white-garment control. Performances for the deceptive garments were reduced relative to the control garment at the earliest occlusion points for the rightmost targets, but this effect was reversed for the leftmost targets at the earliest occlusion point, suggesting that the visual illusion garments were deceiving participants about motion information from the proximal-to-distal sequence of the action.

Smeeton and Varga are with Expertise and Cognitive Neuroscience Science Laboratory, Centre for Sport and Exercise Science and Medicine, University of Brighton, Eastbourne, United Kingdom. Causer is with Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom. Williams is with the Dept. of Health, Kinesiology, and Recreation, College of Health, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

Smeeton (n.j.smeeton@brighton.ac.uk) is corresponding author.
  • Abernethy, B. (1993). Searching for the minimal essential information for skilled perception and action. Psychological Research, 55(2), 131–138. doi:10.1007/BF00419644

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abernethy, B., Gill, D.P., Parks, S.L., & Packer, S.T. (2001). Expertise and the perception of kinematic and situational probability information. Perception, 30(2), 233–252. PubMed doi:10.1068/p2872

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abernethy, B., & Zawi, K. (2007). Pickup of essential kinematics underpins expert perception of movement patterns. Journal of Motor Behavior, 39(5), 353–367. PubMed doi:10.3200/JMBR.39.5.353-368

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aglioti, S.M., Cesari, P., Romani, M., & Urgesi, C. (2008). Action anticipation and motor resonance in elite basketball players. Nature Neuroscience, 11(9), 1109–1116. PubMed doi:10.1038/nn.2182

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Altman, D.G., & Royston, P. (2006). The cost of dichotomising continuous variables. British Medical Journal, 332(7549), 1080. doi:10.1136/bmj.332.7549.1080

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bishop, D.T., Wright, M.J., Jackson, R.C., & Abernethy, B. (2013). Neural bases for anticipation skill in soccer: An fMRI study. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 35(1), 98–109. PubMed doi:10.1123/jsep.35.1.98

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bourne, M., Bennett, S.J., Hayes, S.J., Smeeton, N.J., & Williams, A.M. (2013). Information underpinning anticipation of goal-directed throwing. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 75(7), 1559–1569. doi:10.3758/s13414-013-0485-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brault, S., Bideau, B., Craig, C., & Kulpa, R. (2010). Balancing deceit and disguise: How to successfully fool the defender in a 1 vs. 1 situation in rugby. Human Movement Science, 29(3), 412–425. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.humov.2009.12.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brault, S., Bideau, B., Kulpa, R., & Craig, C.M. (2012). Detecting deception in movement: The case of the side-step in rugby. PLoS ONE, 7(6), 37494. PubMed doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037494

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bruce, V., Green, P.R., & Georgeson, M.A. (2003). Visual perception: physiology, psychology, and ecology (4th ed.). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Causer, J, McRobert, A.P., & Williams, A.M. (2013). The effect of stimulus intensity on response time and accuracy in dynamic, temporally-constrained environments. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 23, 627–634. PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01440.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Causer, J, & Williams, A.M. (2015). The use of patterns to disguise environmental cues during an anticipatory judgment task. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 37, 74–82. PubMed doi:10.1123/jsep.2014-0200

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dicks, M., Button, C., & Davids, K. (2010). Examination of gaze behaviors under in situ and video simulation task constraints reveals differences in information pickup for perception and action. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 72(3), 706–720. doi:10.3758/APP.72.3.706

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gibson, J.J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

  • Huys, R., Canal-Bruland, R., Hagemann, N., Beek, P.J., Smeeton, N.J., & Williams, A.M. (2009). Global information pickup underpins anticipation of tennis shot direction. Journal of Motor Behavior, 41(2), 158–171. PubMed doi:10.3200/JMBR.41.2.158-171

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huys, R., Smeeton, N.J., Hodges, N.J., Beek, P.J., & Williams, A.M. (2008). On the dynamic information underlying visual anticipation skill. Perception & Psychophysics, 70(7), 1217–1234. PubMed doi:10.3758/PP.70.7.1217

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jackson, R.C., Warren, S., & Abernethy, B. (2006). Anticipation skill and susceptibility to deceptive movement. Acta Psychologica, 123(3), 355–371. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2006.02.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lopes, J.E., Jacobs, D.M., Travieso, D., & Araujo, D. (2014). Predicting the lateral direction of deceptive and non-deceptive penalty kicks in football from the kinematics of the kicker. Human Movement Science, 36, 199–216. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.humov.2014.04.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mather, G. (2006). Foundations of perception. New York/Hove/East Sussex: Psychology Press.

  • Rowe, R., Horswill, M.S., Kronvall-Parkinson, M., Poulter, D.R., & McKenna, F.P. (2009). The effect of disguise on novice and expert tennis players’ anticipation ability. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 21(2), 178–185. doi:10.1080/10413200902785811

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Runeson, S., & Frykholm, G. (1983). Kinematic specification of dynamics as an informational basis for person-and-action perception—Expectation, gender recognition, and deceptive intention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 112(4), 585–615. doi:10.1037/0096-3445.112.4.585

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sebanz, N., & Shiffrar, M. (2009). Detecting deception in a bluffing body: The role of expertise. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16(1), 170–175. PubMed doi:10.3758/PBR.16.1.170

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smeeton, N.J., Huys, R., & Jacobs, D.M. (2013). When less is more: Reduced usefulness training for the learning of anticipation skill in tennis. PLoS ONE, 8(11), e79811. PubMed doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079811

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smeeton, N.J., & Williams, A.M. (2012). The role of movement exaggeration in the anticipation of deceptive soccer penalty kicks. British Journal of Psychology, 103, 539–555. PubMed doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.2011.02092.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stevenson, K.P., Smeeton, N.J., Filby, W.C.D., & Maxwell, N.S. (2015). Assessing representative task design in cricket batting: Comparing an in-situ and laboratory-based task. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 46(6), 758–779. doi:10.7352/ijsp.2015.46.758

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sun, P., Chubb, C., & Sperling, G. (2015). Two mechanisms that determine the barber-pole Illusion. Vision Research, 111, 43–54. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.visres.2015.04.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thurman, S.M., & Grossman, E.D. (2011). Diagnostic spatial frequencies and human efficiency for discriminating actions. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 73(2), 572–580. doi:10.3758/s13414-010-0028-z

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ward, P., Williams, A.M., & Bennett, S.J. (2002). Visual search and biological motion perception in tennis. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 73(1), 107–112. PubMed doi:10.1080/02701367.2002.10608997

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, A.M., Huys, R., Canal-Bruland, R., & Hagemann, N. (2009). The dynamical information underpinning anticipation skill. Human Movement Science, 28(3), 362–370. doi:10.1016/j.humov.2008.10.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, A.M., Ward, P., Knowles, J.M., & Smeeton, N.J. (2002). Anticipation skill in a real-world task: Measurement, training, and transfer in tennis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 8(4), 259–270. PubMed doi:10.1037/1076-898X.8.4.259

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wright, M.J., Bishop, D.T., Jackson, R.C., & Abernethy, B. (2013). Brain regions concerned with the identification of deceptive soccer moves by higher-skilled and lower-skilled players. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 851. PubMed doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00851

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wuerger, S., Shapley, R., & Rubin, N. (1996). “On the visually perceived direction of motion” by Hans Wallach: 60 years later. Perception, 25, 1317–1368.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 100 99 35
Full Text Views 15 15 3
PDF Downloads 5 5 0