This study examined the effect of various leader characteristics on the transformational/transactional leader behavior (Bass, 1985) and impact of interuniversity athletic administrators (n = 32), as rated by their coaches (n = 114). Gender, age, education, administrative experience, and athletic/coaching experience were examined as possible antecedents to leader behavior (Chelladurai, 1980,1993). These characteristics reflect life experiences (Avolio & Gibbons, 1988) and common indicators of occupational development of athletic administrators (e.g., Barr, 1995; Quarterman, 1992; Williams & Miller, 1983). Leader behavior was measured by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (Bass & Avolio, 1991b). Differences in transformational/transactional leader behavior were observed for the leader characteristics of gender and age, where female and younger athletic administrators were found to exhibit transformational leader behavior more often, and transactional leader behavior less often, than their male and older counterparts, respectively. Gender and age also were associated with the coaches' perception of leader effectiveness and their frequency of extra effort.
Alison J. Doherty is with the Faculty of Kinesiology at The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7.