The Effects of Sexualized and Violent Presentations of Women in Combat Sport

in Journal of Sport Management
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This study utilizes an experimental design to investigate how different presentations (sexualized, neutral, and combat) of female athletes competing in a combat sport such as mixed martial arts, a sport defying traditional gender norms, affect consumers’ attitudes toward the advertising, event, and athlete brand. When the female athlete in the advertisement was in a sexualized presentation, male subjects reported higher attitudes toward the advertisement and the event than the female subjects. Female respondents preferred neutral presentations significantly more than the male respondents. On the one hand, both male and female respondents felt the fighter in the sexualized ad was more attractive and charming than the fighter in the neutral or combat ads and more personable than the fighter in the combat ads. On the other hand, respondents felt the fighter in the sexualized ad was less talented, less successful, and less tough than the fighter in the neutral or combat ads and less wholesome than the fighter in the neutral ad.

Greenwell, Hancock, and Shreffler are with the Sport Administration Program, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY. Simmons is with the Sport Management Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH. Thorn is with the Sport Management Program, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH.

Address author correspondence to T. Christopher Greenwell at tcgreenwell@louisville.edu.
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