Adding Conditional Superannuation to the Antidoping Policy Mix

in Journal of Sport Management
View More View Less
  • 1 La Trobe University
  • 2 Loughborough University
  • 3 University of Adelaide
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $85.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $114.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $162.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $216.00

This article introduces and then examines a novel antidoping policy mechanism, based upon a conditional superannuation fund for professional athletes. It begins by presenting a theoretical case in favor of the scheme relative to the background of current policy. Consideration is given to the utility and benefits of a conditional superannuation mechanism to augment existing antidoping policy structures. The case is developed using results from a pilot experimental economics study testing the policy proposal, which suggests that the conditional superannuation mechanism has the potential to outperform existing measures, such as fines and bans. This article offers a policy variation that could supplement the existing arrangements as a contiguous mechanism. While no single policy intervention seems plausible in fully eliminating sport doping, a combination of incentive and punitive mechanisms may yield a superior policy mix to help attenuate doping’s prevalence in elite sport. The evidence presented here within the antidoping policy context may also recommend the utility of conditional superannuation as a mechanism to address other enduring challenges in sport, such as violence, gambling, and behavioral transgressions.

Lenten is with the Department of Economics and Finance, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Smith is with the Institute for Sport Business, Loughborough University, London, United Kingdom. Bayer is with the School of Economics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Address author correspondence to Liam J.A. Lenten at l.lenten@latrobe.edu.au.
  • Aubel, O., & Ohl, F. (2014). An alternative approach to the prevention of doping in cycling. International Journal of Drug Policy, 25(6), 10941102. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.08.010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Backhouse, S., McKenna, J., & Patterson, L. (2007). Prevention through education: A review of current international social science literature—A focus on the prevention of bullying, tobacco, alcohol, and social drugs use in children, adolescents and young adults. Leeds, UK: World Anti-Doping Agency/Carnegie Research Institute, Leeds University, WADA.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bamberger, M., & Yeager, D. (1997). Over the edge: Aware that drug testing is a sham, athletes seem to rely more than ever on banned performance enhancers. Sports Illustrated, 86(15), 6070.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berensten, A., Buegger, E., & Loertscher, S. (2008). On cheating, doping and whistle blowing. European Journal of Political Economy, 24(2), 415436. doi:10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2007.12.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bird, E.J., & Wagner, G.G. (1997). Sport as a common property resource: A solution to the dilemmas of doping. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 41(6), 749766. doi:10.1177/0022002797041006002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • British Medical Association (Ed.). (2002). Policy instruments to prevent the use of drugs in sport. In Drugs in sport: The pressure to perform (pp. 89112). London, UK: Author.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Camporesi, S., & Knuckles, J.A. (2014). Shifting the burden of proof in doping: Lessons from environmental sustainability applied to high-performance sport. Reflective Practice, 15(1), 106118. doi:10.1080/14623943.2013.869203

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carlson, K., Kim, J., Lusardi, A., & Camerer, C.F. (2015). Bankruptcy rates among NFL players with short-lived income spikes. American Economic Review, 105(5), 381384. doi:10.1257/aer.p20151038

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Caulkins, J.P., & Reuter, P. (2005). Re-defining the goals of National Drug Policy: Recommendation from a working group. American Journal of Public Health, 85(8), 10591063.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cisyk, J., & Courty, P. (2017). Do fans care about compliance to doping regulations in sports? The impact of PED suspension in baseball. Journal of Sports Economics, 18(4), 323350. doi:10.1177/1527002515587441

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Connor, J., Woolf, J., & Mazanov, J. (2013). Would they dope? Revisiting the Goldman dilemma. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47(11), 697700.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cooper, C. (2012). Run, swim, throw, cheat: The science behind drugs in sport. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

  • Coupé, T., & Gerguad, O. (2013). Suspicious blood and performance in professional cycling. Journal of Sports Economics, 14(5), 546559. doi:10.1177/1527002512441481

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Hon, O., Kuipers, H., & van Bottenburg, M. (2014). Prevalence of doping use in elite sports: A review of numbers and methods. Sports Medicine, 45(1), 5769. doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0247-x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dendir, E.P. (2016). When do soccer players peak? A note. Journal of Sports Analytics, 2(2), 89105. doi:10.3233/JSA-160021

  • Dimeo, P., & Taylor, J. (2013). Monitoring drug use in sport: The contrast between official statistics and other evidence. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 20(1), 4047. doi:10.3109/09687637.2012.713412

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Donovan, R.J., Egger, G., Kapernick, V., & Mendoza, J. (2002). A conceptual framework for achieving performance enhancing drug compliance in sport. Sports Medicine, 32(4), 269284. doi:10.2165/00007256-200232040-00005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eber, N., & Thepot, J. (1999). Doping in sport and competition design. Recherches Economiques de Louvain, 65(4), 435446.

  • Engelberg, T., Moston, S., & Skinner, J. (2015). The final frontier of anti-doping: A study of athletes who have committed doping violations. Sport Management Review, 18(2), 268279. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2014.06.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Erickson, K., McKenna, J., & Backhouse, S.H. (2015). A qualitative analysis of the factors that protect athletes against doping in sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16(2), 149155. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.03.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evans-Brown, M., McVeigh, J., Perkins, C., & Bellis, M. (2012). Human enhancement drugs: The emerging challenges to public health. Liverpool, UK: JMU—Centre for Public Health.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hauw, D., & Bilard, J. (2012). Situated activity analysis of elite track and field athletes’ use of prohibited performance-enhancing substances. Journal of Substance Use, 17(2), 183197. doi:10.3109/14659891.2010.545858

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hauw, D., & Mohamed, S. (2015). Patterns in the situated activity of substance use in the careers of elite doping athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16(20), 156163. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.09.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Henne, K. (2010). WADA, the promises of law and the landscapes of anti-doping regulation. Political and Legal Anthropology Review, 33(92), 306325. doi:10.1111/j.1555-2934.2010.01116.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hirschmann, D. (2017). May increasing doping sanctions discourage entry to the competition? Journal of Sports Economics, 18(7), 720736. doi:10.1177/1527002515595265

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Howman, D. (2012). Current limitations in analytical strategies. Bioanalysis, 4(13), 15351536. doi:10.4155/bio.12.122

  • Huybers, T., & Mazanov, J. (2012). What would Kim do? A choice study of projected athlete doping considerations. Journal of Sport Management, 26(4), 322334. doi:10.1123/jsm.26.4.322

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jeukendrup, A., & Tipton, K.D. (2009). Legal nutritional boosting for cycling. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 8(4), 186191. doi:10.1249/JSR.0b013e3181ae9950

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jiggens, J. (2005). The cost of drug prohibition in Australia. Paper presented at the Social Change in the 21st Century Conference, Centre for Social Change Research, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane.

    • Export Citation
  • Jones, C. (2010). Doping in cycling: Realism, antirealism and ethical deliberation. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 37(1), 88101. doi:10.1080/00948705.2010.9714768

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kayser, B., Mauron, A., & Miah, A. (2007). Current anti-doping policy: A critical appraisal. BMC Medical Ethics, 8(2), 110.

  • Kayser, B., & Smith, A. (2008). Globalisation of anti-doping: The reverse side of the medal. British Medical Journal, 337, 584 . doi:10.1136/bmj.a584

  • Lazear, E.P. (1979). Why is there mandatory retirement? Journal of Political Economy, 87(6), 12611284. doi:10.1086/260835

  • Lentillon-Kaestner, V., & Carstairs, C. (2010). Doping among young elite cyclists: A qualitative psychosocial approach. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sport, 20(2), 336345. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00885.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lulham, M. (2012, October 24). The race for Armstrong’s millions. Daily Telegraph, p. 78.

  • Maennig, W. (2002). On the economics of doping and corruption in international sports. Journal of Sports Economics, 3(1), 6189. doi:10.1177/1527002502003001005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mazanov, J. (2017). Managing drugs in sport. London, UK: Routledge.

  • Mazanov, J., Hemphill, D., Connor, J., Quirk, F., & Backhouse, S.F. (2015). Australian athlete support personnel lived experience of anti-doping. Sport Management Review, 18(2), 218230. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2014.05.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mazanov, J., Huybers, T., & Connor, J. (2011). Qualitative evidence of a primary intervention point for elite athlete doping. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 14(2), 106110. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2010.06.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mazanov, J., & Woolf, J. (2017). Corporate social responsibility and managing drugs in sport. Journal of Global Sport Management, 2(2), 96110. doi:10.1080/24704067.2017.1314765

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miah, A. (2006). Rethinking enhancement in sport. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1093(1), 301320. doi:10.1196/annals.1382.020

  • Mosher, J.F., & Yanagisako, K.L. (1991). Public health, not social warfare: A public health approach to illegal drug policy. Journal of Public Health Policy, 12(3), 278323. doi:10.2307/3342844

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moston, S., Engelberg, E.T., & Skinner, J. (2015). Perceived incidence of drug use in Australian sport: A survey of athletes and coaches. Sport in Society, 18(1), 91105. doi:10.1080/17430437.2014.927867

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parsons, W. (1995). Public policy: An introduction to the theory and practice of policy analysis. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

  • Petroczi, A., & Aidman, E. (2008). Psychological drivers in doping: The life-cycle model of performance enhancement. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 3(7), 312.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pitsch, W., & Emrich, E. (2011). The frequency of doping in elite sport: Results of a replication study. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 47(5), 559580. doi:10.1177/1012690211413969

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pound, R. (2006). Inside dope: How drugs are the biggest threat to sports, why you should care, and what can be done about them. Mississauga, Canada: Wiley.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rahnema, C.D., Lipshultz, L.I., Crosnoe, L.E., Kovac, J.R., & Kim, E.D. (2014). Anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism: Diagnosis and treatment. Fertility and Sterility, 101(5), 12711279. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2014.02.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rushall, B., & Jones, M. (2007). Drugs in sport: A cure worse than the disease? International Journal of Sport Science & Coaching, 2(4), 335361. doi:10.1260/174795407783359722

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Savulescu, J., Foddy, B., & Clayton, M. (2004). Why we should allow performance enhancing drugs in sport. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38, 666670. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2003.005249

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sluggett, B. (2011). Sport’s doping game: Surveillance in a biotech age. Sociology of Sport Journal, 28(4), 387403. doi:10.1123/ssj.28.4.387

  • Smith, A., & Stewart, B. (2008). Drug policy in sport: Hidden assumptions and inherent contradictions. Drug and Alcohol Review, 27(2), 123129. doi:10.1080/09595230701829355

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, A., & Stewart, B. (2014). Why deterrence policies do not work: A cognitive perspective on drugs in sport. In B. Stewart, & M. Burke (Eds.), Drug control in sport: Writings from the edge (pp. 243267). Melbourne, Australia: Dry Ink Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, A., & Stewart, B. (2015). Why the war on drugs in sport will never be won. Harm Reduction Journal, 12, 53. doi:10.1186/s12954-015-0087-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, A., Stewart, B., Oliver-Bennetts, S., McDonald, S., Ingerson, L., Anderson, A., … Graetz, F. (2010). Contextual influences and athlete attitudes to drugs in sport. Sport Management Review, 13(3), 181197. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2010.01.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spiteri, A., & Nepalz, S.K. (2006). Incentive-based conservation programs in developing countries: A review of some key issues and suggestions for improvements. Environmental Management, 37(1), 114. doi:10.1007/s00267-004-0311-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stewart, B., Outram, S., & Smith, A.C. (2013). Doing supplements to improve performance in club cycling: A life-course analysis. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 23(6), e361372. doi:10.1111/sms.12090

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stewart, B., & Smith, A. (2014). Rethinking drugs in sport: Why the war on drugs in sport will never be won. London, UK: Routledge.

  • Stewart, B., & Smith, A. (2015). Revisiting the drugs-in-sport problem: A manifesto for a new deal. In I. Waddington (Ed.), Routledge handbook on drugs in sport (pp. 260280). London, UK: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strelan, P., & Boeckmann, R. (2003). A new model for understanding performance-enhancing drug use by elite athletes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 15(2), 176183. doi:10.1080/10413200305396

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Striegel, H., Ulrich, R., & Simon, P. (2010). Randomised response estimates for doping and illicit drug use in elite athletes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 106(2), 230232. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.07.026

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • U.S. Anti-Doping Agency. (2012). Report on the Proceedings Under the World Anti-Doping Code and the USADA Protocol: United States Anti-Doping Agency (claimant) v. Lance Armstrong (respondent). Colorado Springs, CO: Author.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Uvacsek, M., Nepusz, T., Naughton, D., Mazanov, J., Ranky, M., & Petroczi, A. (2011). Self-admitted behaviour and perceived use of performance-enhancing vs psychoactive drugs amongst competitive athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sport, 21(2), 224234. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01041.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Voy, R. (1991). Drugs, sport and politics. Champaign, IL: Leisure Press.

  • Waddington, I. (2000). Sport, health and drugs: A critical sociological perspective. London, UK: E & FN Spon.

  • Wiefferink, C., Detmar, S., Coumans, B., Vogels, T., & Paulussen, T. (2008). Social psychological determinants of the use of performance-enhancing drugs by gym users. Health Education Research, 23(1), 7080. doi:10.1093/her/cym004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Anti-Doping Agency. (2003). World anti-doping code. Montreal, Canada: Author.

  • World Anti-Doping Agency. (2004). World anti-doping code: The 2004 prohibited list international standard. Montreal, Canada: Author.

  • World Anti-Doping Agency. (2011). Strategic plan 2011–2016. Montreal, Canada: Author.

  • World Anti-Doping Agency. (2016). World anti-doping code. Montreal, Canada: Author.

  • Wu, Q., Bayer, R.-C., & Lenten, L.J.A. (2016). A comparison of anti-doping measures in sporting contests (Working Paper: 2016-11), University of Adelaide, School of Economics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yesalis, C.E., Kopstein, A.N., & Bahrke, M.S. (2001). Difficulties in estimating the prevalence of drug use among athletes. In W. Wilson & E. Derse (Eds.), Doping in elite sport: The politics of drugs in the Olympic movement (pp. 4362). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 240 210 32
Full Text Views 16 12 0
PDF Downloads 4 2 0