Effect of Loading Devices on Muscle Activation in Squat and Lunge

in Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $74.00

1 year subscription

USD $99.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $141.00

2 year subscription

USD $185.00

Context: Squats and lunges are common exercises frequently applied in muscle-strengthening and therapeutic exercises. The loading devices are often used to increase the training intensity. Objective: To determine the effect of loading devices on muscle activation in squat and lunge and to compare the differences in muscle activation between squat and lunge. Design: Cross-sectional cohort. Participants: Nineteen healthy, male, recreationally active individuals without a history of lower limb injury. Interventions: Each participant performed 10 repetitions of a squat under 5 conditions: unloaded, barbell, dumbbell, loaded vest, and kettlebell, and 10 repetitions of a lunge under 4 conditions: unloaded, barbell, dumbbell, and loaded vest. Main Outcome Measures: The electromyography signals of quadriceps, hamstrings, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius lateralis and medialis were measured. One-way repeated-measure analysis of variance was used to compare the difference among different loading conditions. Paired t test was used to compare the difference between squat and lunge. Results: The muscle activation in the loaded conditions was significantly higher than that in nonloaded conditions in squat and lunge. Compared with the barbell, dumbbell, and loaded vest conditions, the semitendinosus showed significantly higher activation, and the tibialis anterior showed significantly lower activation in kettlebell condition in squat. No significant difference in muscle activation was found among barbell, dumbbell, and kettlebell conditions in lunge. In addition, quadriceps and hamstring activities were significantly higher in lunge than in squat. Conclusions: Muscle activation was affected by the loading devices in squat but not affected in lunge. Kettlebell squat could be suggested for targeting in strengthening medial hamstring. Progressive strengthening exercise could be recommended from squat to lunge based on sequential activation level.

Wu is with the Department of Physical Education, National Taiwan University of Sport, Taichung, Taiwan. Tsai and Chang are with the Department of Exercise Health Science, National Taiwan University of Sport, Taichung, Taiwan. Liang is with the Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan.

Chang (changyw@ntupes.edu.tw) is corresponding author.
Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Article Sections
References
  • 1.

    Fagan VDelahunt E. Patellofemoral pain syndrome—a review on the associated neuromuscular deficits and current treatment options. Br J Sports Med. 2008;42:789795. PubMed ID: 18424487 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Escamilla RFFleisig GSZheng Net al. Effects of technique variations on knee biomechanics during the squat and leg press. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(9):15521566. PubMed ID: 11528346 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Jalali MFarahmand FRezaeian TRamsey DKMousavi SME. Electromyographic analysis of anterior cruciate deficient knees with and without functional bracing during lunge exercise. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2016;40(2):270276. PubMed ID: 25519297 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Escamilla RFZheng NMacleod TDet al. Cruciate ligament forces between short-step and long-step forward lunge. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(10):19321942. PubMed ID: 20195182 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Singh BYack HJFrancis SLJanz KF. Biomechanical loads during common rehabilitation exercises in obese individuals. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2015;10(2):189196. PubMed ID: 25883867

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Ayotte NWStetts DMKeenan GGreenway EH. Electromyographical analysis of selected lower extremity muscles during 5 unilateral weight-bearing exercises. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2007;37(2):4855. PubMed ID: 17366959 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    McCurdy KO’Kelley EKutz MLangford GErnest JTorres M. Comparison of lower extremity EMG between the 2-leg squat and modified single-leg squat in female athletes. J Sport Rehabil. 2010;19(1):5770. PubMed ID: 20231745 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Caterisano AMoss REPellinger TKet al. The effect of back squat depth on the EMG activity of 4 superficial hip and thigh muscles. J Strength Cond Res. 2002;16(3):428432. PubMed ID: 12173958

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Saeterbakken AHFimland MS. Muscle force output and electromyographic activity in squats with various unstable surfaces. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(1):130136. PubMed ID: 22450254 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Lee DLee SPark J. Impact of decline-board squat exercises and knee joint angles on the muscle activity of the lower limbs. J Phys Ther Sci. 2015;27(8):26172619. PubMed ID: 26357447 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Macrum EBell DRBoling MLewek MPadua D. Effect of limiting ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion on lower extremity kinematics and muscle-activation patterns during a squat. J Sport Rehabil. 2012;21(2):144150. PubMed ID: 22100617 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Paoli AMarcolin GPetrone N. The effect of stance width on the electromyographical activity of eight superficial thigh muscles during back squat with different bar loads. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(1):246250. PubMed ID: 19130646 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Bouillon LEWilhelm JEisel PWiesner JRachow MHatteberg L. Electromyographic assessment of muscle activity between genders during unilateral weight-bearing tasks using adjusted distances. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2012;7(6):595605. PubMed ID: 23316423

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Farrokhi SPollard CDSouza RBChen Y-JReischl SPowers CM. Trunk position influences the kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity of the lead lower extremity during the forward lunge exercise. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2008;38(7):403409. PubMed ID: 18591759 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Criswell E. Cram’s Introduction to Surface Electromyography. 2nd ed. Sunbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 2011.

  • 16.

    Gullett JCTillman MDGutierrez GMChow JW. A biomechanical comparison of back and front squats in healthy trained individuals. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(1):284292. PubMed ID: 19002072 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Selkowitz DMBeneck GJPowers CM. Which exercises target the gluteal muscles while minimizing activation of the tensor fascia lata? Electromyographic assessment using fine-wire electrodes. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2013;43(2):5464. PubMed ID: 23160432 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    French HPDunleavy MCusack T. Activation levels of gluteus medius during therapeutic exercise as measured with electromyography: a structured review. Phys Ther Rev. 2010;15(2):92105. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Schwanbeck SChilibeck PDBinsted G. A comparison of free weight squat to Smith machine squat using electromyography. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(9):25882591. PubMed ID: 19855308 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Aspe RRSwinton PA. Electromyographic and kinetic comparison of the back squat and overhead squat. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(10):28272836. PubMed ID: 24662228 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Contreras BVigotsky ADSchoenfeld BJBeardsley CCronin J. A comparison of gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and vastus lateralis electromyography amplitude in the parallel, full, and front squat variations in resistance-trained females. J Appl Biomech. 2016;32(1):1622. PubMed ID: 26252837 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Zebis MKSkotte JAndersen CHet al. Kettlebell swing targets semitendinosus and supine leg curl targets biceps femoris: an EMG study with rehabilitation implications. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47(18):11921198. PubMed ID: 22736206 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Begalle RLDiStefano LJBlackburn TPadua DA. Quadriceps and hamstrings coactivation during common therapeutic exercises. J Athl Train. 2012;47(4):396405. PubMed ID: 22889655 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Tsaklis PMalliaropoulos NMendiguchia Jet al. Muscle and intensity based hamstring exercise classification in elite female track and field athletes: implications for exercise selection during rehabilitation. Open Access J Sports Med. 2015;6:209217. PubMed ID: 26170726

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Jakobsen MDSundstrup EAndersen CHAagaard PAndersen LL. Muscle activity during leg strengthening exercise using free weights and elastic resistance: effects of ballistic vs controlled contractions. Hum Mov Sci. 2013;32(1):6578. PubMed ID: 23231756 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Stastny PLehnert MZaatar AMSvoboda ZXaverova Z. Does the dumbbell-carrying position change the muscle activity in split squats and walking lunges? J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(11):31773187. PubMed ID: 25968228 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Boudreau SNDwyer MKMattacola CGLattermann CUhl TLMcKeon JM. Hip-muscle activation during the lunge, single-leg squat, and step-up-and-over exercises. J Sport Rehabil. 2009;18(1):91103. PubMed ID: 19321909 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 94 94 32
Full Text Views 13 13 4
PDF Downloads 6 6 0
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar