Journal of Sport Rehabilitation

Volume 30 (2021): Issue 1 (Jan 2021)

JSR JIF: 1.650The Journal of Sport Rehabilitation (JSR) is your source for the latest peer-reviewed research in the field of sport rehabilitation. All members of the sports-medicine team will benefit from the wealth of important information in each issue. JSR is completely devoted to the rehabilitation of sport and exercise injuries, regardless of the age, gender, sport ability, level of fitness, or health status of the participant. JSR increased publication from 6 to 8 issues per year in 2019 (January, February, March, May, July, August, September, and November).


The editorial mission of JSR is to advance the understanding of all aspects of sport rehabilitation, particularly in the areas of therapeutic exercise, therapeutic modalities, injury evaluation, and the psychological aspects of rehabilitation. JSR publishes peer-reviewed original research, systematic reviews/meta-analyses, critically appraised topics (CATs), case studies/series, and technical reports that directly affect the management and rehabilitation of injuries incurred during sport-related activities, irrespective of the individual’s age, gender, sport ability, level of fitness, or health status. The journal is intended to provide an international, multidisciplinary forum to serve the needs of all members of the sports medicine team, including athletic trainers/therapists, sport physical therapists/physiotherapists, sports medicine physicians, and other health care and medical professionals.

Original Research Reports. JSR publishes original research reports on all aspects of the sport and exercise rehabilitation process.

Systematic Reviews/Meta-Analyses. These manuscripts are systematic, critical assessments of literature and data sources pertaining to clinical topics. Emphasis should include cause, diagnosis, prognosis, therapeutic intervention, therapeutic rehabilitation, or prevention.

Critically Appraised Topics (CATs). JSR encourages submission of CATs, which provide evidence-based clinicians a brief summary of available evidence focused around a specific clinical question in sport rehabilitation. A CAT is shorter and undergoes a less rigorous critical review for answering a clinical question than a systematic review.

Case Studies. JSR publishes case studies that present carefully recorded observations of rehabilitation programs or processes among sport and exercise participants. Case studies must present unusual or rare injuries or conditions or present unique approaches to common ones. They should present a unique rehabilitation or treatment that leads to an increased standard of care.

Technical Reports. JSR publishes, online only, short articles that present results related to a new or modified method, instrument, or clinical technique; validity/reliability or methods; or an important experimental observation within the scope of the journal.

JSR will also publish special issues that are oriented toward a specific sport rehabilitation theme. The editor solicits special issue topic suggestions.


Kellie C. Huxel Bliven, PhD, ATC
A.T. Still University, USA

Editors Emeriti

David Perrin (Founding Editor: 1992–1995)
Scott Lephart (1996–1999)
Christopher Ingersoll (2000–2003)
Buz Swanik (2004–2006)
Carl G. Mattacola (2007–2019)

Associate Editors

Tamara C. Valovich McLeod, PhD, ATC, FNATA
A.T. Still University, USA

Erik A. Wikstrom, PhD, ATC, FNATA, FACSM
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA

Editorial Assistants

Hannah Duszynski, A.T. Still University, USA

Nicole Strout, ATC, A.T. Still University, USA

Clinical Outcomes Consultant

Alison Snyder Valier, PhD, ATC, A.T. Still University, USA

Statistical Consultants

Emily Van Meter Dressler, PhD, Wake Forest School of Medicine, USA

Editorial Board

William M. Adams, PhD, ATC, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, USA

Barton E. Anderson, DHSc, AT, A.T. Still University, USA

Brent Arnold, PhD, ATC, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, USA

Gul Baltaci, PhD, PT, Hacettepe University, Turkey

Tab Blackburn, MEd, PT, ATC, ATI Physical Therapy, USA

Lori A. Bolgla, PhD, PT, ATC, Georgia Regents University, USA

Michelle C. Boling, PhD, ATC, University of North Florida, USA

Timothy A. Butterfield, PhD, ATC, University of Kentucky, USA

Douglas J. Casa, PhD, ATC, University of Connecticut, USA

Brian Caulfield, PhD, University College Dublin, Ireland

Scott W. Cheatham, PhD, DPT, PT, OCS, ATC, CSCS, California State University Dominguez Hills, USA

Mitchell Cordova, PhD, ATC, Florida Gulf Coast University, USA

Mutlu Cuğ, PhD, Kocaeli University, Turkey

Richard DeMont, PhD, CAT(C), ATC, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada

Craig R. Denegar, PhD, ATC, PT, University of Connecticut, USA

Justin DiSanti, PhD, A.T. Still University, USA

Michael G. Dolan, MA, ATC, Canisius College, USA

Luke Donovan, PhD, ATC, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA

Geoffrey Dover, PhD, CAT(C), ATC, Concordia University, Canada

Reed Ferber, PhD, CAT(C), ATC, University of Calgary, Canada

A. Louise Fincher, EdD, ATC, LAT, University of Texas at Arlington, USA

Neal Glaviano, PhD, ATC, The University of Toledo, USA

Kevin Guskiewicz, PhD, ATC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA

Karrie Hamstra-Wright, PhD, ATC, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA

Gulcan Harput, PT, PhD, Hacettepe University, Turkey

Joseph M. Hart, PhD, ATC, University of Virginia, USA

Rod A. Harter, PhD, ATC, Texas State University, USA

Charlie A. Hicks-Little, PhD, ATC, University of Utah, USA

Matthew Hoch, PhD, ATC, University of Kentucky, USA

J. Ty Hopkins, PhD, ATC, Brigham Young University, USA

Megan Houston, PhD, AT, Keller Army Community Hospital, USA

Tricia Hubbard Turner, PhD, ATC, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA

Wendy L. Hurley, PhD, ATC, CSCS, State University of New York College at Cortland, USA

Cale Jacobs, PhD, ATC, University of Kentucky, USA

Jupil Ko, PhD, ATC, Incheon National University, South Korea

Kenneth C. Lam, ScD, ATC, A.T. Still University, USA

Christian Lattermann, MD, Brigham and Women's Hospital, USA

Kevin Laudner, PhD, ATC, University of Colorado-Colorado Springs, USA

Robert C. Lynall, PhD, ATC, University of Georgia, USA

Robert C. Manske, PT, DPT, MEd, SCS, ATC, SCSC, Wichita State University, USA

Jennifer Medina McKeon, PhD, ATC, Ithaca College, USA

Patrick O. McKeon, PhD, ATC, Ithaca College, USA

Mark A. Merrick, PhD, ATC, The Ohio State University, USA

Gregory D. Myer, PhD, University of Cincinnati, USA

Alan Needle, PhD, ATC, Appalachian State University, USA

Yum Nguyen, PhD, ATC, West Virginia University, USA

John T. Parsons, PhD, ATC, NCAA Sport Science Institute, USA

Kelsey J. Picha, PhD, ATC, A.T. Still University, USA

Brian G. Pietrosimone, PhD, ATC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA

Michael Pohl, PhD, University of Puget Sound, USA

Cameron Powden, PhD, AT, University of Indianapolis, USA

Johna Register-Mihalik, PhD, LAT, ATC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA

Michael P. Reiman, PT, DPT, OCS, ATC, CSCS, Duke University, USA

Hayley Root, PhD, ATC, Monmouth University, USA

Matthew K. Seeley, PhD, ATC, Brigham Young University, USA

Amee L. Seitz, PhD, DPT, Northwestern University, USA

Chad A. Starkey, PhD, ATC, Ohio University, USA

C. Buz Swanik, PhD, ATC, University of Delaware, USA

Tim Tyler, MS, PT, ATC, The Nicholas Institute of Sports Medicine and Athletic Trauma, USA

Bonnie L. Van Lunen, PhD, ATC, Old Dominion University, USA

Steven M. Zinder, PhD, ATC, University of North Carolina Wilmington, USA

Human Kinetics Staff
Doug Hoepker, Senior Journals Managing Editor

Prior to submission, please carefully read and follow the submission guidelines detailed below. Authors must submit their manuscripts through the journal’s ScholarOne online submission system. To submit, click the button below:

Submit a Manuscript

Authorship Guidelines

The Journals Division at Human Kinetics adheres to the criteria for authorship as outlined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors*:

Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content. Authorship credit should be based only on substantial contributions to:

a. Conception and design, or analysis and interpretation of data; and
b. Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and
c. Final approval of the version to be published.

Conditions a, b, and c must all be met. Individuals who do not meet the above criteria may be listed in the acknowledgments section of the manuscript. *Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. (1991). New England Journal of Medicine, 324, 424–428.

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Human Kinetics is pleased to allow our authors the option of having their articles published Open Access. In order for an article to be published Open Access, authors must complete and return the Request for Open Access form and provide payment for this option. To learn more and request Open Access, click here.

Manuscript Guidelines

The Journal of Sport Rehabilitation publishes peer-reviewed original research, systematic reviews/meta-analyses, critically appraised topics (CATs), case studies/series, and technical reports that directly affect the management and rehabilitation of injuries incurred during sport-related activities.

Format/Preparation Guidelines

Submissions must be prepared in English as a typed Microsoft Word document. The document must be double-spaced, include page and line numbers, and use margins of at least 1 in. Author information should not be included any place in the manuscript (ie, title page, subjects, methods), and any identifying information created within Microsoft Word settings should be removed. A cover letter with author information should be included during the submission process. While completing the submission process you will be required to provide the title of the manuscript, name(s) of author(s), institutional affiliation(s), a short title for the running head (15 word limit), mailing address, e-mail address, and fax and phone numbers of the author who is to receive the proofs.

Manuscripts should be written in first person using the active voice. Writing should be concise and direct. Avoid using unnecessary jargon and abbreviations, but use an acronym or abbreviation if it is more commonly recognized than the spelled-out version of a term. Formats of numbers and units and all other style matters should follow the AMA Manual of Style, 10th edition. All manuscripts must contain an abstract of no more than 300 words, with formatted subheadings. All tables and figures must be clearly labeled and should be submitted as separate files. JSR discourages the use of already printed and copyrighted materials. If necessary, the author must include a letter granting permission to reprint the material. The required structure of the manuscript is detailed below.

Parts of the Manuscript

There are structure requirements that apply to all manuscript submissions:

Structured Abstract

Abstracts must be structured as described in the AMA Manual of Style, 10th edition, and contain 300 words or fewer. 

  • Original research abstracts must include the following headings: Context, Objective, Design, Setting, Patients (or Other Participants), Intervention(s), Main Outcome Measures, Results, Conclusions
  • Systematic review or meta-analysis abstracts must include the following headings: Context, Objectives, Evidence Acquisition (data sources, study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction), Evidence Synthesis (data synthesis), Conclusions
  • Critically appraised topic abstracts must include the following headings: Clinical Scenario, Clinical Question, Summary of Key Findings, Clinical Bottom Line, Strength of Recommendation
  • Technical report abstracts should comply with original research guidelines for the abstract and references.

Manuscript Body

The body of the manuscript is specific to the type of manuscript submission (each is detailed below).


References must follow the AMA Manual of Style, 10th edition; details are provided below.

Figures, Tables, Videos (if applicable)

Details are provided below.

Original Research

These reports of original data should include the following parts: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions.


In this section, build the problem and specifically state the purpose and hypotheses of the study. Do not label the introduction section.


This section should include the following subheadings: Design (study design, not statistical design should be included with respective independent and dependent variables), Patients or Participants (subject information including a statement that institutional review board approval was granted [without indicating author’s affiliation], in the spirit of the Helsinki Declaration), Procedures (clearly and succinctly describe interventions and outcome measures), and Statistical Analyses.


This section should include a presentation of results relevant to the stated objectives. Do not explain why the results turned out as they did or justify the use of a specific statistical procedure in this section. This section should not contain statistical jargon that may confuse readers. If tables or figures are used, the information should not be repeated in the text.


The discussion is a formal consideration and critical examination of the study. The research hypotheses of the study should be addressed and considered in the context of other published works. The study’s limitations and generalizability should also be addressed.


This section should summarize the most clinically pertinent findings of the study. Conclusions should be directly supported by the data and should highlight the clinical importance of the work that was performed while avoiding overgeneralizations.

Systematic Reviews

These manuscripts are systematic, critical assessments of literature and data sources pertaining to clinical topics. Emphasis should include cause, diagnosis, prognosis, therapeutic intervention, therapeutic rehabilitation, or prevention. All articles or data sources should be systematically selected for inclusion and critically evaluated, and the search and selection process should be described in the manuscript. The specific type of study or analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes should be described for each article or data source.

The data sources should be as current as possible, ideally with the search having been conducted within several months of manuscript submission. A structured abstract is required and the recommended length of the manuscript is 3000–4000 words (not including abstract, tables, figures, and references). For an example of a systematic review, please see Medina McKeon JM, Yancosek KE. Neural gliding techniques for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome: a systematic review. J Sport Rehabil. 2008;17:324–341.

Reports of Meta-Analyses

Meta-analyses are also considered reviews. Authors of meta-analyses of randomized trials are encouraged to submit the QUOROM flow diagram and checklist. Please see Moher D, Schulz KF, Altman D. The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomized trials. JAMA. 2001;285:1987–1991, or visit Authors of meta-analyses of observational studies are encouraged to submit the proposed MOOSE checklist. Please see Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC, et al. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. JAMA. 2000;283:2008–2012, or visit

Structured Abstract

As noted above, the structured abstract should consist of the following headings:

  • Context: Succinctly explain the importance of the review questions
  • Objectives: A precise statement of the primary question addressed by the review followed by any secondary questions
  • Evidence Acquisition: Data sources, study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction
  • Evidence Synthesis: Data synthesis
  • Conclusions

Main Text

The body should consist of the following parts:

  • Context: Provide background and justify the need for the review by describing clearly the problem for which evidence of effectiveness was sought.
  • Objectives: Include questions to be addressed by the review (hypotheses tested).
  • Evidence acquisition: This part explains how the research was conducted and should detail data sources, search strategy, and study selection (inclusion and exclusion criteria). The details of the study selection process should be reported explicitly, preferably using a flow diagram. A list of studies excluded from the review should also be reported, where possible, giving the reasons for each exclusion. Study quality assessment and data extraction should also be addressed.
  • Evidence synthesis: This part provides details of the included and excluded studies including the results of the review. Discussing findings of the review, such as inclusion of the point measures and the measures of variability, is encouraged. For example, 95% confidence intervals should be incorporated around the calculation of effect sizes, odds ratios, relative risk, numbers needed to treat, and sensitivity and specificity. Robustness of the results (sensitivity analyses) should be addressed.
  • Discussion: The discussion is an interpretation of results.
  • Conclusions: Provide recommendations for health care implications for further research and strength of recommendation.
  • Acknowledgments (if applicable)
  • Conflict of interest (if applicable)
  • References
  • Appendices (if applicable)

Critically Appraised Topics (CATs)

These manuscripts are a shorter summary of available evidence focused on a specific clinical question in sport rehabilitation. A critically appraised topic (CAT) is similar to a systematic review in that it summarizes the best evidence in a body of literature; however, it is a shorter manuscript and less rigorous critical review for answering the clinical question of interest. CATs provide an excellent mechanism for busy evidence-based practice clinicians to collect and disseminate information they find while searching for answers to important clinical questions. A CAT typically includes a critical appraisal of at least 3 high-quality studies, but not more than 5. Conversely, a summary of a single paper is referred to as a Critically Appraised Paper (CAP) (Note: JSR is not accepting CAPs for review). A CAT seeks to find the best available evidence in a less rigorous search process that is more readily available to clinicians, and then critically appraise the papers selected for inclusion using accepted standards for evidence-based practice. For an example of a CAT, please see Rodik T, McDermott B. Platelet-rich plasma compared with other common injection therapies in the treatment of chronic lateral epicondylitis. J Sport Rehabil. 2016;25:77–82. More information about CATs is available at and

These CAT author guidelines were adapted from the Occupational Therapy Critically Appraised Topics (CATs) Template. JSR also recognizes the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine as the source for defining levels of evidence and strength of recommendation ( Authors should follow this template for sections and headings, and in formatting tables.

Structured Abstract

Structured abstracts should provide the following key information in one page or less.

  • Clinical Scenario: A brief description of the clinical scenario leading to the clinical question
  • Clinical Question: A focused clinical question of importance in sport rehabilitation
  • Summary of Key Findings: A bulleted list of the key clinical findings from the search
  • Clinical Bottom Line: The most important take-home message from the available evidence; a statement regarding the level of available evidence and subsequent strength of recommendations is required
  • Strength of Recommendation: A brief description of the strength of evidence summarized following the critical appraisal

Main Text

  • Search Strategy: Describe the databases and sites searched, the search terms used, and any search limits. The search should ideally have been conducted within several months of submission for publication and should seek to obtain the best available evidence.
  • PICO: Patient/Client and Condition; Intervention (or Assessment); Comparison; Outcome(s)
  • Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria: Explicitly list all inclusion and exclusion criteria.
  • Search Results: In narrative form, describe the results of your search.
  • Best Evidence: Indicate how many studies were chosen for inclusion and appraisal in this CAT and provide the reasons that these studies were selected (ie, level 1 study). JSR strongly recommends authors use the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine’s definitions in determining level of evidence (
  • Summary of Best Evidence: Each of the studies chosen for inclusion in the CAT should be critically appraised in a comparative table. The table might include the following headings: (a) Study Design, (b) Participants, (c) Intervention Investigated, (d) Control, (e) Experimental, (f) Outcome Measures (Primary and Secondary), (g), Main Findings, (h) Level of Evidence, (i) Validity Score, (j) Conclusion.
  • Implications for Practice, Education, and Future Research: Include a practical discussion based on the information provided from the appraisal of current literature. Anecdotal comments regarding whether or not this intervention is commonly used clinically, the cost of this intervention, and so on are appropriate.
  • Acknowledgments
  • Conflict of Interest
  • References

Technical Reports

Technical Reports are short articles that present results related to a new or modified method, instrument, or clinical technique; validity/reliability or methods; or an important experimental observation within the scope of JSR. Technical Reports should not be confused with case studies, book reviews, or literature reviews. This format is focused on providing concise reports of experimental investigations with the intent of providing the readership with innovative original findings in regard to clinical and laboratory techniques or observations. This format is associated with strict author guidelines. Manuscripts designated as Technical Reports that do not comply with these guidelines will be returned to the author. Please note that Technical Reports will only be published online.

Guidelines for Technical Reports

  • Limit the manuscript to 1500 words.
  • The manuscript should be divided into 4 sections: Introduction (no heading required), Methods, Results, and Discussion.
  • Subheadings should be limited throughout the manuscript.
  • References should be limited to 10.
  • A limit to any combination of 3 tables and figures should be observed.
  • The abstract, references, and the body of the article should comply with the guidelines for Original Research manuscripts.


Each citation in the text must be designated by a superscripted numeral, and full information must appear in the reference list. Reference information must be accurate. References must be limited to directly pertinent published works or papers that have been accepted for publication; usually this can be achieved with less than 30 references, although review papers might have more extensive reference lists. The reference list is to be double-spaced, arranged in the order the works are first cited, and numbered serially, with only 1 reference per number. Entries in the reference list should be consistent with Index Medicus for journal abbreviations and follow the AMA Manual of Style, 10th edition, as follows:

Journal Articles: Surname of first author, initials, then surname and initials of each coauthor; title of article (capitalize only the first word and proper nouns), name of the journal (italicized and abbreviated according to style of Index Medicus), year, volume, and inclusive page numbers:

Jacobs C, Mattacola CG. Gender comparison of eccentric hip abductor strength and knee joint kinematics when landing from a jump. J Sport Rehabil. 2005;14:346–355.

Book References: Author(s) as above, title of book (italicized and all major words capitalized), city and state/province of publication, publisher, and year:

Starkey C, Johnson G. Athletic Training and Sports Medicine. Salisbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett;2005.

Chapter in an Edited Book: Same as book references, but add the name of the chapter author(s) and title of chapter (capitalize first word and proper nouns) before the book information and the page range at the end:

Perrin DH. The evaluation process in rehabilitation. In: Prentice WE, ed. Rehabilitation Techniques in Sports Medicine. 2nd ed. St Louis, MO: Mosby Year Book; 1994:253–276.

Figures and Tables

Figures should be professional in appearance and have clean, crisp lines. They should be no larger than 8 by 10 in, but keep in mind that they might have to be reduced to fit the journal’s format. Hand drawing and hand lettering are not acceptable. Use black and white or gray shading only, no color. Photographic images should be submitted as separate files and must be either JPEG or TIFF format at a resolution of 300 dots per inch (dpi). Authors are urged to submit illustrations rather than tables. When tabular material is necessary, it should not duplicate the text. Tables should be double-spaced on separate sheets and include brief titles.


Video clips may be submitted to illustrate your article in the online version of JSR. Video allows elaboration of techniques, testing procedures, or clinical observations. Video should supplement and add to the conclusiveness of the manuscript. Replication of the figures in the text is not recommended. Files may be submitted for review as part of the manuscript; each digital video file should be designated and uploaded as a “supplementary file.” You also should indicate in the cover letter accompanying your submission that you have submitted a video file. Digital material from a source not original to the author must be accompanied by a statement from the copyright holder giving you permission to publish it; the source and copyright holder must be credited in the article. Video should be submitted in MPEG-4 (.mp4), Quicktime (.m4v, .mov), or Windows Media (.wmv) format with standard frame sizes of 1920 × 1080 pixels (for high definition) or 720 × 480 pixels (for standard definition) and a frame rate of 30 frames/s. Human Kinetics will inspect all video submissions for quality and technical specifications, and we reserve the right to reject any video submission that does not meet quality standards and specifications.

Submitting a Manuscript

The Journal of Sport Rehabilitation uses a Web-based system, ScholarOne, for the submission and tracking of manuscripts (see submission button at the top of this page). Submissions undergo a peer-review process; submissions are read by the editor and at least two reviewers through a blind review process. The time between submission and a decision regarding acceptance for publication takes approximately 7–10 weeks, but may be longer. Submitted manuscripts may not be in the review process by any other publication when, or during review, by the Journal of Sport Rehabilitation.

Authors of manuscripts accepted for publication must transfer copyright to Human Kinetics, Inc. To view this form, please visit ScholarOne and select "Instructions & Forms" in the upper right corner. You do not need an account to access this information. 


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