From Sport Psychology to Sport and Exercise Psychology: A 40-year Update

in Kinesiology Review

As part of the 40th anniversary of the publication of Brooks’s (1981) Perspectives on the Academic Discipline of Physical Education, the authors offer an update on the Sport Psychology chapter, including key developments, topics, and issues in sport and exercise psychology. They begin with an overview of the 1981 chapter and state of sport psychology as described during that time. Then, in the main part of the article, they go through each of the main topics as presented in the 1981 chapter—highlighting what’s gone, what’s stayed, what’s changed, and what’s new. In the final section, they discuss the current state of sport and exercise psychology and end with their aspirations for sport and exercise psychology.

I (D.L. Gill) am pleased to contribute to the 40th anniversary celebration of the Brooks-edited book Perspectives on the Academic Discipline of Physical Education. As a very early-career scholar, I (Gill, 1981) wrote the chapter on sport psychology for that book. Now, as a very senior scholar, I offer my views on the key developments, topics, and issues in sport and exercise psychology (SEP), and its relationship to the larger kinesiology discipline, as well as look to future directions. To help this senior author, my two coauthors (L. Madrigal and E.J. Reifsteck) are early career scholars who will add their views—it is their future.

We have begun with an overview of the 1981 chapter and state of sport psychology as described during that time. Then, in the main part of the article, we have gone through each of the main topics as presented in the 1981 chapter—highlighting what’s gone, what’s stayed, what’s changed, and what’s new. In the final section, we have discussed the current state of SEP and its place within kinesiology, and ended with a look to future directions.

Sport Psychology in 1981

Sport psychology (now SEP) was just emerging as an identifiable subdiscipline in the late 1970s, when the 1981 chapter was written. As E. Dean Ryan (1981) wrote in his chapter in the Brooks book, sport psychology had emerged at least twice before then, but the work was short-lived and not sustained. In the 1970s, with the formation of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity and the development of sustained research and graduate programs by scholars such as Dan Landers, Rainer Martens, and Dorothy Harris, sport psychology became a recognized subdiscipline within physical education (PE). Indeed, all subdisciplines were within PE at that time, as implied in the title of the Brooks book.

The 1981 chapter reflected the approach and main topics of that emerging subdiscipline, which might be labeled as Social Psychology and Physical Activity, as the SEP area was labeled within the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity at that time, and in the title of Martens’s (1975) book, which described the emerging field. Indeed, the main topics in the 1981 chapter are similar, and that likely reflects my graduate work at the University of Illinois with Rainer Martens. As discussed in the 1981 chapter, the “hot” topics at that time fell into three general research areas, personality, motivation, and social influence/interaction, and a fourth, an applied sport psychology area. In the following sections, we have reviewed the main research topics within each area at that time, and then highlighted updates over 40 years—what’s gone, what has stayed, and what’s new—along with related changes in the overall field of SEP within kinesiology.

Personality

Earlier work in sport psychology often used global personality measures with athletes. By 1981, that work was fading, and sport psychology researchers turned to more relevant, sport-specific personality characteristics and more changeable individual differences and self-perceptions. The specific subheadings under personality were Competitive Anxiety, Achievement Motivation, and Attitudes.

Competitive anxiety was largely the work of Martens (1977) et al., who recognized that sport-specific measures were better predictors than general personality measures and confirmed that with the development of the Sport Competition Anxiety Test and related research. Achievement motivation in sport psychology (e.g., Roberts, 1974) followed Atkinson’s classic work, which took an interaction approach, with high and low achievers (personality) behaving differently in different situations. SEP work on Attitudes at that time was limited and mainly pertaining to attitudes toward sport and physical activity as stable individual characteristics. The 1981 chapter foresaw future personality research as focusing on sport-specific characteristics and considering the interactive influence of person and situational variables.

Updates

To some extent, the prediction was accurate; more sport-specific measures were developed, and research used person–situation interaction approaches. However, research on personality per se is limited. More recent SEP research has focused more on changeable, surface-level skills and characteristics; and attitudes have shifted to self-perceptions, which connect with motivation topics. For example, Smith et al. (1995) developed and validated a multidimensional measure of sport-specific psychological skills, the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory, as part of a project on coping with athletic injury. Notably, the skills measured with the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory are relevant to sport and changeable—they can be developed and improved. The Athletic Coping Skills Inventory and similar measures have been used in research, as well as in applied work, as a base to guide mental skill training.

Self-concept has long been a psychology and SEP topic. As with personality, SEP research moved to more changeable and sport-specific aspects of self-concept. For example, Fox and Corbin (1989) developed a hierarchical model and measure, with subscales of sport, condition, body, and strength all contributing to physical self-worth, which then contributes to global self-esteem, and Brewer et al. (1993) developed a measure of athletic identity. As an example of the shift from attitudes to self-perceptions related to motivation, Bandura’s (1977) initial self-efficacy research was quickly taken up in SEP, particularly by Deb Feltz (Feltz et al., 1979). SEP researchers, including Feltz (1982) and Ed McAuley (1993), have continued and extended that research over the last 40 years. Similarly, Dweck (1975) was beginning her influential research with learned helplessness. Dweck’s continuing research on self-beliefs and mindsets has grown over the last 40 years (e.g., Dweck, 2019; Dweck & Yeager, 2019) and influenced research and practice in many areas, including SEP.

Motivation

Motivation has always been, and continues to be, a major topic in SEP, but the frameworks and approaches have changed with the times. In 1981, the chapter subareas were Arousal and Motor Performance, Behavior Modification, and Cognitive Approaches. Arousal and performance research at that time (e.g., Landers, 1981) drew from classic psychology work on drive theory and the inverted U model. Behavior modification, as the title suggests, applied contingency management principles (reinforcement) with sport performance and behaviors, as in Rushall and Siedentop’s (1972) work. Cognitive approaches were just taking off in psychology, particularly with Weiner et al.’s (1974) attribution work, which was the base for Dweck’s early work, and the early research of Lepper, Greene, and Nisbett (1973) and Deci (1975) on intrinsic motivation. In closing the motivation section, I stated that cognitive concepts of perceived control and self-efficacy might prove to be key factors in sport psychology, and indeed, that is the case.

Updates

Bandura expanded his early self-efficacy work into social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986, 2019), which has prompted considerable research and influenced practice in psychology, health behavior, and SEP. Similarly, the early work on intrinsic motivation has expanded into self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000), which has become the dominant framework and guide for SEP research on physical activity promotion.

Although cognitive motivation models and research continued to grow over the past 40 years, the other topics—arousal and behavior modification—declined and nearly disappeared in SEP. Arousal has not really disappeared, but has shifted into the broader topic of emotion, which has reemerged as a major topic in psychology and SEP. Rather than looking at arousal performance as in earlier studies, SEP research has focused on arousal and emotional patterns across individuals and over time. The early research of Fenz (1975) and Mahoney and Avener (1977) suggested that better and poorer performers differed not in absolute levels of arousal, but in patterns over time—in essence, better athletes are better able to control arousal or emotion. That early research prompted further research, such as Hanin’s (2000) continuing research on emotion and zone of optimal functioning, and also influenced applied sport psychology practice with athletes.

Within SEP, the initial work of Ekkekakis and Petruzzello (1999) on affect state and exercise, demonstrating that emotional states vary in intensity (arousal) and valence (positive–negative) over time, set the stage for continuing research with practical applications. Ekkekakis et al. have continued and expanded that work (e.g., Ekkekakis & Brand, 2019; Ekkekakis et al., 2013), and that research has moved out of the lab to influence exercise programs. As Ekkekakis (2017) has argued, to promote physical activity, we must consider how people feel (affect) during exercise.

While SEP research on affect state and exercise has implications for exercise motivation and physical activity promotion, other SEP research focuses on exercise and mental health. SEP research on exercise and cognition, as well as physical activity and mood, and mental health and well-being, has become popular. For example, Jenny Etnier (Etnier, 2014; Etnier et al., 1997) and Chuck Hillman (Hillman et al., 2019) have developed strong research programs on exercise and cognition, and that research has implications for academic performance in schools, as well as cognitive function in older adults (Castelli et al., 2007; Etnier, 2015). Similarly, several researchers have looked at the role of exercise in mental health and quality of life. For example, Lox’s et al.’s (2014) book, Psychology of Exercise, has chapters reviewing research on exercise and stress, anxiety, depression, emotional well-being, and health-related quality of life, as well as cognitive function.

Although we do not find traditional behavior modification research in SEP, behavioral approaches have recently made a comeback. More specifically, in research on physical activity behavior, behavioral strategies and the role of “habit” are prominent (e.g., Hagger, 2019; Rebar et al., 2014). As well as research specifically on behavioral strategies, integrated models that incorporate both behavioral and cognitive approaches have been effective in promoting physical activity. Bess Marcus et al. have demonstrated the efficacy of integrated models in research; moved from research into intervention programs (Marcus & Forsyth, 2009); and, most recently, moved into programs that involve community engagement (e.g., Marcus et al., 2013; Murray et al., 2017). That recent research extends beyond cognitive-behavioral models to emphasize context, as in social ecological models. Indeed, when moving into any community, context is a critical consideration.

Social Influence and Social Interaction

In the 1981 chapter, Social Influence and Social Interaction were two separate major headings. The social influence subareas were Social facilitation, Social reinforcement, Competition, and Modeling. Social interaction included Aggression, Group performance, Cohesion, and Leadership. All the social influence subtopics were basically looking at the influence of other people on motor performance, and that was a major topic in the early emergence of SEP research in the 1970s. That included Martens’s (1969) research on audience effects, my master’s thesis research on social reinforcement (Gill & Martens, 1975), and research on modeling and performance (Feltz & Landers, 1977). Modeling and feedback cross into motor learning, and a few SEP scholars have continued that work (e.g., Ste-Marie et al., 2012). Overall, though, none of those topics are hot—or even lukewarm—now, and the researchers moved on to other issues.

Under the Social interaction heading, the aggression research drew from the psychology work of Bandura and Berkowitz and focused on aggression in sport—particularly, ice hockey. Group performance research (e.g., Gill, 1979) adopted Steiner’s (1972) model, with coordination and motivation losses leading to less than optimal group performance. Several SEP researchers looked at group cohesion and performance, including Bert Carron (e.g., Carron & Ball, 1977), who was one of few SEP researchers to continue that line (e.g., Carron, 1982; Carron et al., 1985).

In concluding that section in the chapter, I noted that investigating group dynamics in sport presents many obstacles (need for large numbers, extraneous variables that are difficult to control, and lack of standard conceptual models or measures) and, optimistically, hoped that some would persist despite the obstacles to advance an understanding of a long-neglected group dynamics area.

Updates

That cautious conclusion clearly was optimistic. Social influence (as conducted then) is gone—although social support merges with social relations, and some SEP research on social support and physical activity continues (e.g., Sabiston et al., 2007). Few SEP researchers have taken on the challenge of group research, and overall, “social” has nearly disappeared from SEP. Maria Kavassanu et al. have continued a line of research on aggression and prosocial behavior in sport (e.g., Kavussanu & Al-Yaaribi, 2019), but few others have done so. The “prosocial” side has expanded, as a few SEP scholars, along with colleagues in other areas, have developed research and programs related to positive youth development. As noted, Bert Carron was key in developing research on group dynamics in sport, and his former students and colleagues have continued and extended that work (e.g., Beauchamp, 2019; Spink et al., 2010). A few others, including Eccles et al., have looked at team coordination (e.g., Eccles, 2010; Eccles & Tenenbaum, 2004; Eccles & Tran, 2012). Only a few SEP scholars have addressed issues in any of these “social” topics. That is also the case with other “social” topics of gender and cultural issues, which were included (briefly) in the applied section of the 1981 chapter.

Applied Sport Psychology

The final topic area in the 1981 chapter was “Applied” sport psychology. Of course, “applied” is not really a topic or content area. As noted in that chapter, most of the research covered under other topics was more “basic,” often conducted in labs or controlled settings, and rarely engaged with participants in sport and physical activity settings. The 1981 chapter included three subtopics, which were particular target population groups—Women in sport, Children in sport, and Elite athletes. Sport psychology research on women in sport drew from the psychology work of Bem (1978) and Spence and Helmreich (1978) and focused on masculine and feminine personality, sex roles, and sport participation. Youth sport was a popular topic at that time, with the publication of several books (e.g., Martens, 1978; Orlick & Botterill, 1975), as well as research on youth sport. Ron Smith and Frank Smoll had begun their continuing research and programming on youth sport and coaching (Smith & Smoll, 1997; Smith et al., 1979), and Dan Gould (Gould & Martens, 1979) was beginning his continuing research on youth sport.

In 1981, applied sport psychology with elite athletes was just emerging and beginning to replace youth sport as the hot topic at conferences. Martens (1979) had recently presented and published his “smocks and jocks” paper, advocating a shift from the lab to the field for sport psychology research. Others moved toward a more direct application, following the examples of clinical psychologists Mike Mahoney (1979), who specifically advocated applying cognitive skills in athletics, and Dick Suinn (1980), who published his work using visuomotor behavior rehearsal and anxiety management with athletes.

In ending the applied section in 1981, I expected the shift to applied sport psychology to continue, but noted that the trend offered both promise and danger. Specifically, at that time, direct application was restricted to a few techniques and to elite athletes, with no parallel increase in related research. As noted in 1981, sport psychology should be just as applicable to youth, older adult participants, and athletes who are not elite. Moreover, sound theory-based research on applied techniques was needed to support professional practice.

Updates

Those 1981 closing comments still hold today. Applied sport psychology, directly with athletes, has grown—a lot. Unfortunately, that applied work is still narrowly focused on elite athletes, and research has not matched the growth in practice. With the development and growth of the Association for Applied Sport Psychology, and its increasing emphasis on professional practice and certification, applied sport psychology has indeed grown. In the 1980s and 1990s, many of those working in applied sport psychology were in PE, exercise science, or kinesiology. Today, most of those professionals are trained in psychology or counseling, and those credentials are often expected. And, the focus is still narrowly on elite athletes.

As noted earlier, women in sport and children in sport are not really applied sport psychology topics, but issues related to women and youth in sport are relevant and fall under the larger “social” umbrella. As briefly discussed earlier, an active line of research on positive youth development has moved from the earlier youth sport research to a more developmental approach that includes life skills and skill development. Dan Gould (e.g., Gould et al., 2014) and Maureen Weiss (e.g., Weiss, 2008; Weiss et al., 2020) are two noted SEP researchers who not only have their own research on sport and youth development, but have also mentored many students who are extending that research (e.g., Whitley et al., 2015; Whitley et al., 2016). Moreover, much of that research involves collaboration with researchers and professionals in other areas, and directly engages with the community and ongoing programs.

Research on women in sport continues, with a few dedicated SEP scholars focusing on gender issues, but the issues and approaches have changed over time. Carole Oglesby (1978) has been a consistent and persistent feminist voice within SEP over these 40 years, and Vikki Krane has an extensive line of research on gender and sexuality in sport and, most recently, transgender athletes (e.g., Krane, 2001, 2016). Oglesby, Krane, and most SEP scholars have moved beyond sex differences and roles, recognizing that people have multiple, intersecting identities and that identities and relationships involve power or privilege. Ruth Hall (2001; Hall & Oglesby, 2016) has been a strong voice for women of color, and Leeja Carter’s (2020) recent edited book features the voices of several diverse feminist SEP scholars and professionals.

Much of the SEP research on cultural issues is on gender, likely due to the long-standing gender segregation of most sport activities and gender stereotypes related to sport. A few SEP scholars, particularly Leslie Fisher, Rob Schinke, Tatiana Ryba, and colleagues, have called for cultural sport psychology, with more research on cultural issues, as well as cultural competence and social justice, in professional practice (e.g., Fisher et al., 2003; Ryba et al., 2010; Schinke & Hanrahan, 2009). Recent events have called attention to cultural diversity, equity, and inclusion (or lack thereof) and prompted calls for change throughout society. Within kinesiology and SEP, race and ethnicity in particular have long been neglected in research, and our professional organizations and practices are far from inclusive.

Current SEP

As suggested in the updates in the previous sections, the major topics of personality, motivation, and social influence/interaction are still there, but with many changes. Personality has moved away from global personality measures to more changeable individual skills and characteristics. Motivation remains a major topic, and cognitive theories and models play a major role, but behavioral approaches have reemerged, and integrated models that incorporate cognitive and behavioral strategies, and consider the environment or context are more promising in promoting physical activity. Emotion must now be considered a major topic, with considerable research on the role of emotion in physical activity behavior, as well as growing research on the role of physical activity in mental health.

Social and group dynamics topics are still relevant, but generally, “social” has faded in SEP, as research has shifted much more to the “bio” side and away from the “social” side of the biopsychosocial model. Although that shift may allow for more focused, controlled research, such as emerging research in neuroscience, such research does not move or translate well into the real world. Psychology is about people and behavior. As a subarea within kinesiology, SEP focuses on people and behavior in physical activity. That is, physical activity is our unique context that defines our subdiscipline. As noted social psychologist Kurt Lewin (1935) elegantly stated, behavior is a function of the person and the environment (context). We cannot truly understand behavior without considering the context. In addition, in real-world practice—context—is everything.

The applied area, at least the limited applied work with elite athletes, has moved closer to psychology and away from kinesiology, as well as focusing more on professional practice issues and away from research. The Association for Applied Sport Psychology has developed a certification process that draws primarily on psychology and counseling models, and many of the advertised positions for sport psychology professionals call for credentials or licensing in psychology or counseling. Some applied sport psychology professionals have extended their practice beyond sport to other performance areas, such as dance and music, as well as to the military and business professionals. Those shifts expand our reach, but also take applied sport psychology away from kinesiology. Certainly, applied sport psychology professionals can (and should) draw on SEP and kinesiology research, but those widening gaps make that difficult.

On a positive note, applied SEP is not (or should not be) limited to elite athletes and need not involve clinical psychology or counseling practices or credentials. Some SEP researchers, particularly in areas related to youth development and physical activity promotion, have taken their work into school and community settings. Notably, much of that applied work involves engaging with community partners and adapting to the particular context, and that leads into our promising trends.

Current SEP and Connections

SEP today encompasses a range of disciplinary perspectives, theoretical frameworks, research agendas, and professional issues. As with all kinesiology areas, SEP research has grown, and with that growth comes more specialization and narrowing—for better and for worse. The combination of growth and specialization has led to divisions or dualisms within the field. As argued elsewhere (Gill, 2009, 2020, and my coauthors agree), these dualisms (e.g., sport vs. exercise, kinesiology vs. psychology, research vs. practice) are artificial and counterproductive. The sport psychology and exercise psychology split is particularly problematic and does not help address real-world issues, such as the role of physical activity in health, youth development, and quality of life. Indeed, many SEP researchers refer to the more encompassing term “physical activity” in describing their work. As Brad Cardinal (2014) argued, we might better refer to physical activity psychology than SEP to describe our subarea. Focusing on physical activity also offers more connections with other kinesiology scholars and professionals.

When the Brooks book was published, SEP was more united as one subdiscipline and also closely connected with other kinesiology subareas. Indeed, all disciplinary areas were connected within PE. SEP was particularly connected with motor learning and motor development, as all connect to psychology. We belonged to the same organizations, and our research and programs overlapped. Most of us had similar backgrounds in our undergraduate and even graduate programs, with courses that covered physical activity, from anatomy/physiology to history/philosophy. We also had the professional PE context to connect all of us. We no longer have that PE connection. Many (perhaps most) kinesiology programs no longer have PE at all. Our kinesiology undergraduate programs are popular and some of the largest on campus. Most undergraduates have professional goals, typically in allied health areas, but the programs and subdisciplinary courses no longer have one clear professional focus.

Still, our focus on physical activity offers many connections in research and practice. SEP researchers, regardless of their specialized interests, can contribute to growing interdisciplinary research on physical activity promotion in relation to public health. Although research in all areas is more specialized, SEP researchers can still connect with colleagues in motor behavior. Youth sport and positive youth development programs clearly connect with motor development, and research on attention and performance and skill development crosses SEP and motor learning/control (e.g., Wulf & Lewthwaite, 2016). Behavioral strategies, motivation models, and emotion/affect states are key considerations in exercise programs that were once the province of exercise physiology. Sports medicine has not only incorporated behavioral strategies in athletic training and rehab practice, but also is increasingly incorporating mental skills and considering mental health, as well as physical health. Sport sociology was more closely aligned when our emerging subarea was social psychology and physical activity. Over the 40 years, SEP has moved closer to the biosciences and away from social; indeed, all of kinesiology (then PE) has moved away from sociology—and history/philosophy. That is our loss, as the social context is critical to understanding physical activity behavior, and recognizing the social and historical context is critical in applying our understandings in practice.

Future Trends and Aspirations

Although we are coming from different perspectives and generations, my coauthors and I have similar views on the current state of SEP, as well as promising trends (perhaps unsurprisingly, as we share University of North Carolina Greensboro connections). Many of the current trends and hot topics are noted in the previous update sections. For example, physical activity and mental health has recently emerged as a “hot” area in both research and practice. Also, research on both behavioral approaches and emotion in physical activity promotion is “hot” now and likely to continue. Current SEP research incorporates more complex models of behavioral change. For example, integrated models may include both individual cognitive and behavioral approaches, as well as considering the social context and systems. We have seen tremendous technological advances over the last 40 years, and that trend continues. Technology allows monitoring of physical activity, as well as related thoughts and feelings, immediately and continuously over time. Virtual reality and online platforms are increasingly found in research and practice settings. The COVID pandemic accelerated the incorporation of virtual technology in our classrooms, meetings, and lives, as well as in research; the trend may slow, but there is no going back.

Despite our differing perspectives, this senior scholar and these two early career scholars have similar aspirations. Specifically, we all hope for a more unified SEP, and we are all strong advocates for equity, diversity, and inclusion in both research and practice (and in larger society). We aspire to a more integrated SEP that leverages our differences as strengths for addressing issues from multiple perspectives. As noted earlier, one way to unify is to move away from the dualistic sport psychology and exercise psychology camps as we address issues related to promoting physical activity, enhancing performance, and ensuring health and well-being benefits for all participants. Unity could be fostered through connections and collaborative approaches in research and practice within SEP, as well as with other kinesiology subareas.

Recent events such as the deaths of George Floyd and Breonna Taylor, increased anti-Asian violence, and the Black Lives Matter movement have galvanized social justice movements, and prompted our institutions and professional organizations to release statements denouncing racism and affirming their commitment to diversity and inclusion. That may prompt more SEP research related to those social and cultural issues. To date, the “applied” side of SEP has made greater strides toward equity, diversity, and inclusion than the research/academic side. That may be related to the increased involvement of psychology and counseling professionals in applied sport psychology organizations and professional practice. For instance, as of 2018, Diversity and Culture is in the required curriculum for those seeking to become Certified Mental Performance Consultants through the Association for Applied Sport Psychology. Also, the Journal of Applied Sport Psychology and Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology recently organized special issues on the current status of racism in sport psychology and intersectionality in sport, respectively. We hope these trends continue within our research, institutions, and professional practice. In sum, we aspire to a diverse and unified SEP that connects and collaborates with other disciplines and engages with our communities to address issues related to physical activity in research and practice.

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  • Fisher, L.A., Butryn, T.M., & Roper, E.A. (2003). Diversifying (and politicizing) sport psychology through cultural studies: A promising perspective. The Sport Psychologist, 17(4), 391405. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.17.4.391

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    • Search Google Scholar
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Gill and Reifsteck are with the Dept. of Kinesiology, University of North Carolina Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USA. Madrigal is with the Dept. of Kinesiology, California State University—Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, USA.

Gill (dlgill@uncg.edu) is corresponding author.
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feltz, D.L., Landers, D.L., & Raeder, U. (1979). Enhancing self-efficacy in high avoidance motor tasks: A comparison of modeling techniques. Journal of Sport Psychology, 1(2), 112122. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsp.1.2.112

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fisher, L.A., Butryn, T.M., & Roper, E.A. (2003). Diversifying (and politicizing) sport psychology through cultural studies: A promising perspective. The Sport Psychologist, 17(4), 391405. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.17.4.391

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fox, K.R., & Corbin, C.B. (1989). The physical self-perception profile: Development and preliminary validation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11(4), 408430. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.11.4.408

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gill, D.L. (1979). The prediction of group motor performance from individual member abilities. Journal of Motor Behavior, 11(2), 113122. PubMed ID: 15189804 https://doi.org/10.1080/00222895.1979.10735179

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    • Export Citation
  • Gill, D.L. (1981). Current research and future prospects in sport psychology. In G.A. Brooks (Ed.), Perspectives on the academic discipline of physical education (pp. 342378). Human Kinetics Publishers.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gill, D.L. (2009). Social psychology and physical activity: Back to the future. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 80(4), 685695. PubMed ID: 20025109 https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2009.10599609

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gill, D.L. (2020). Social psychology and physical activity: A senior perspective. Kinesiology Review, 9(2), 104111. https://doi.org/10.1123/kr.2019-0032

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gill, D.L., & Martens, R. (1975). The informational and motivational influence of social reinforcement on motor performance. Journal of Motor Behavior, 7(3), 171182. PubMed ID: 23947444 https://doi.org/10.1080/00222895.1975.10735031

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gould, D., Cowburn, I., & Shields, A. (2014). “Sports for All”—Summary of the evidence of psychological and social outcomes of participation. Elevate health: Research digest of the President’s Council on Fitness. Sports & Nutrition, 15(3), 114. http://www.fitness.gov/resource-center/research-and-reports/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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