Looking Back at Kinesiology’s Future: The Need for Both Focused Frogs and Visionary Birds

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  • 1 George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA

This essay reflects on the status of kinesiology amidst the current pandemic and Black Lives Matter movement. Utilizing the metaphor coined by mathematician and physicist Freeman Dyson, I contend that the continued success of kinesiology is more plausible if we prepare more visionary birds, those with broader range and a variety of interests, to supplement the more narrowly focused frogs who currently dominate the field. Implicit in the essay is the contention that the field would benefit if it took a more interdisciplinary approach to the study of physical activity, sport, exercise, and other human movement forms as advocated by the American Kinesiology Association and individual scholars in the field. More specifically, I argue that the social sciences and humanities should be provided a more prominent place in kinesiology curriculums and serve as an academic core for all students in the field, irrespective of career aspirations and goals.

COVID-19 and the Black Lives Matter movement have had a profound impact on life in the United States and other countries around the world. The approximately 3.93 million deaths from COVID-19 worldwide, with some 604,000 of those occurring in the United States at the time of this writing, combined with the killings of unarmed Black men and women by the police, have tested the patience of human beings and made clear the racial and economic disparities that have always existed in society. It has also provided a glimpse into the seemingly unyielding philosophical differences between those on the left and those on the right of the political spectrum and illustrated some people’s attraction to conspiratorial theories and an unidentifiable deep state rather than adherence to the truth and faith in science.

Perhaps most importantly, COVID-19 and the Black Lives Matter movement have offered us a glimpse into the best and worst in humanity and led to much speculation as to what the future holds as a result of the thousands of deaths and unprecedented racial upheaval. Many people from various backgrounds and walks of life have zeroed in particularly on COVID-19, predicting what the future has in store for us as well as offering specific suggestions as to what changes need to be made once the various vaccines have eliminated or at least slowed down the virus. A representative sample of these predictions and suggestions was provided in an intriguing and thoughtful essay in Politico Magazine (2020) that appeared during the early stages of the pandemic. Based on over 30 interviews with public intellectuals, including academicians from disciplinary areas ranging from history and political science to linguistics and psychology, compelling predictions were proffered as to how the world will permanently change as a result of COVID-19. Among those predictions were a renewed faith in serious experts and science, more importance attached to telemedicine, increased recognition of interdependency and sense of community, widening of the inequality gap, limited communal dining but more eating, less mass consumption, revised trust in institutions, a revival of interest in parks, and a hunger for diversions.

There is no mention of kinesiology in the aforementioned essay and only a limited number of studies have addressed thus far the potential impact of COVID-19 on physical activity and exercise (Gao et al., 2020; Tison et al., 2020; Woods et al., 2020). Interestingly but not unexpectedly, more attention has been paid to how COVID-19 will impact the revenue streams of both college and professional sport. That being said, the 2021 American Kinesiology Association (AKA) Virtual Leadership Workshop is the first effort of which I am aware that tackles in a collective way how COVID-19 will influence kinesiology and what changes, if any, need to be made in the profession so it continues to thrive and contributes to the betterment of society. This is the perfect time to pause and reassess professional practices, to reflect on where we have been, what we are currently doing, and where we might head if we are to be truly impactful. The pandemic, while horrific and a calamity of unimaginable proportions, has provided the most privileged among us extended periods of time to contemplate the meaning of life, how best to move forward, and changes needed to be made when the pandemic has passed. Although the watershed events in our history, including the Civil War, World War I, the 1918 flu pandemic, the Great Depression, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Cold War, the AIDS epidemic, 9/11, and the Ebola crisis among others, have all caused us to contemplate the essence of life, the sheer number of deaths resulting from COVID-19 and parallel unmasking of the truth regarding those groups most vulnerable to the pandemic because of age, socioeconomic status, and preexisting conditions, have all combined to foster an environment especially conducive to musing about our present condition and our future (Jaffe, 2020; Politico Magazine, 2020).

Present Status, Future Directions

This being the case, what is the present status of kinesiology and what direction should the field move in the future to ensure its effectiveness in serving society? To answer that question, I suggest we start by utilizing an analogy provided by mathematician and physicist Freeman Dyson regarding the need for both “focused frogs and visionary birds.” Dyson makes the point in his 2009 article in Notices of the American Mathematical Society that “Birds fly high in the air and survey broad vistas of mathematics out to the far horizon and delight in concepts that unify our thinking and bring together diverse problems from different parts of the landscape” (Dyson, 2009, p. 212). Frogs, on the other hand, “delight in the details of particular objects, and they solve problems one at a time.” (Dyson, 2009, p. 212). Dyson, while admitting being a frog, does not value frogs over birds “because they see deeper” or birds over frogs “because they see farther.” The vastness of the world and the fact it is both broad and deep requires frogs and birds to work “together to explore it” (Dyson, 2009, p. 212). Deeply troubling to Dyson, however, is that science is training more and more frogs focused on narrowly defined specialty areas who are “unable to change as science itself does.” He concludes it “is a hazardous situation for the young people and also for the future of science” (Dyson, 2009, p. 221).1

Dyson’s analogy is particularly important, in my view, because it most accurately describes the current state of kinesiology. We are overflowing with “focused frogs” and have far too few “visionary birds.” How did we get to such a place? It should be a familiar story by now. In his book, The Miseducation of American Teachers (Koerner, 1963), James Koerner claimed faculty were intellectually inferior to those in other fields of study, students spent far too much time in methods courses, and trivial subjects like physical education did not belong in higher education (Berryman, 2010; Koerner, 1963). In the same year, James B. Conant, the former president of Harvard University and later U.S. Ambassador to West Germany, noted in his book The Education of American Teachers (Conant, 1963) that he was not very impressed with the field of physical education and recommended that graduate programs in the area should be discontinued. This suggestion, coming from such a high profile and respected academician as Conant, was deeply troubling to those in physical education, many of whom were already concerned about the lack of respect shown to the field (Conant, 1963).

Among those who responded to Conant, no one proved more important and had such a lasting impact as Franklin Henry, the eminent motor control specialist from the University of California, Berkeley (Park, 2017). Just a year after Conant’s book was published, Henry made the case, originally in a presentation at the 1964 conference of the National College Physical Education Association for Men and then in published form in the association’s Proceedings and Journal of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance (1965), that physical education was a “scholarly field” that generated and disseminated knowledge and not exclusively a profession that trained physical educators and coaches. He asserted that the field was “an academic discipline” grounded in theory and organized around a distinct body of knowledge “collectively embraced in a formal course of learning.” This knowledge was “constituted of certain portions of such diverse fields as anatomy, physics and physiology, cultural anthropology, history and sociology, as well as psychology.” Perhaps most importantly, Henry argued that “the acquisition of such knowledge is assumed to be an adequate and worthy objective as such, without any demonstration or requirement of practical application” (Henry, 1965, p. 32).

Henry’s article, which prominent sport sociologist George Sage (2013) reminds us was part of the motor learning specialist’s efforts to respond to the University of California edict that programs offered in the state system must be “academic disciplines grounded in a specific body of knowledge,” was the most visible and coherent statement regarding the discipline of physical education increasingly being discussed in the 1960s by faculty across the country (p. 135). Influenced by the Cold War-inspired dialogue regarding the importance of science, prominent people in physical education proffered their views on what constituted the knowledge base, how it should be disseminated, and what ends it served. In the early 1960s, both the American Academy of Physical Education (now the National Academy of Kinesiology [NAK]) and Big Ten Body-of-Knowledge Symposium offered position statements as to what comprised the body of knowledge in physical education. The Big Ten Body-of-Knowledge Symposium, for instance, recognized six areas of specialization that are commonly associated, along with a few others, with physical education today: (a) biomechanics, (b) exercise physiology, (c) administration theory in athletics and physical education, (d) history and philosophy of physical education, (e) sociology and sport education, and (f) motor learning/sport psychology (Schultz, 2017a).

Those individuals associated with the subdomains identified by the Big Ten Body-of-Knowledge Symposium, along with a few other subdomains, formed their own discipline-specific organizations. These include organizations such as the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (founded in 1967), the North American Society for Sport History (1972), the Philosophic Society for the Study of Sport (1972), the International Society of Biomechanics (1973), the Association for the Study of Play (1974), the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport (1978), the Sport Literature Association (1983), the North American Society for Sport Management (1985), and the Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology (1985). These organizations set up their own annual conferences and scholarly journals to increase the body of knowledge regarding health, exercise, human movement, physical activity, and sport in all its various forms (Schultz, 2017a).

Faculty in physical education, like faculty in other fields with their own specialized groups, quickly exhibited a deep commitment to these organizations, their associated activities, and the academic culture surrounding them. Those in the profession—especially, I would contend, “focused frogs”—sought validation, yearned for recognition, and quested after prestige from like-minded peers at other schools who shared membership in these national organizations rather than from colleagues at their home institutions. It became obvious in academia that this prestige, typically gained through research publications and grant procurement rather than teaching and service, increased a faculty member’s mobility in the job market, led to more financial rewards, and contributed to additional institutional support. Unfortunately, concomitant with this new devotion to “national disciplinary peer groups” was the fragmentation and splintering of physical education into individual domains with seemingly little connection to one another. This transformation, ironic to say the least, in which faculty essentially trade their national reputations for better treatment at their home institutions or more lucrative scholarly positions elsewhere while at once contributing to the fracturing of the profession, was certainly not what Franklin Henry intended to take place when he first claimed the field was “an academic discipline” (Park, 2017).2

The lack of integration and withering away of common purposes and goals, along with the funneling of faculty into their separate domains, would coalesce with other factors to permanently change the nature of the field. Included among these factors was the decreasing number of students majoring in physical education, resulting not unexpectedly in the downsizing or elimination of teacher education programs.3 The lack of integration and withering away of common purposes and goals, moreover, led to debates during the 1980s and 1990s about the most appropriate names for academic programs once titled physical education, whether the field was a discipline or profession, and which courses should be required for degree completion. There were those who questioned whether the lack of integration would actually lead to the extinction of the field (Blankenship & Templin, 2016; Bressan, 1979; Hoffman, 1985; Lawson, 1989, 1991; Newell, 1990; Park, 1998; Vertinsky, 2009). This fear was not unfounded, especially following the elimination of the outstanding Department of Kinesiology at the University of Washington in 1984 and prominent College of Human Development and Performance at the University of Oregon in 1990 (Ellis, 1998; Smoll & Berryman, 1999).

Academic Preparation Up for Debate

Among all the aforementioned issues, it is the question of the most appropriate academic preparation of students in a field now typically known under the umbrella term kinesiology rather than physical education, that is, in my view, most crucial to understand for the long-term health of the profession. Both individual academicians and national organizations have weighed in on the matter and proposed kinesiology undergraduate curricula with specific educational objectives and measurable competencies in an attempt to overcome the seemingly immutable disciplinary silos that have been established. Logically, discussions about the most effective curricula invariably involved questions about breadth versus depth, appropriate integration of supposedly disparate disciplinary areas of study, and proper balance between theory and professional practice. For instance, in 2007, a plethora of articles was published addressing the question of which subjects needed to be included in undergraduate students’ kinesiology curricula. The first issue of Quest that year included papers from the 2006 meeting of the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education that focused on “Kinesiology: Defining the Academic Core of Our Discipline.” Edited by meeting organizer T. Gilmour Reeve (2007), the issue included thoughtful essays largely dealing with the core elements of the various subdisciplinary areas that make up the field (e.g., Fischman, 2007; McCullagh & Wilson, 2007; Newell, 2007; Thomas et al., 2007).

This was followed by a milestone event in February 2009 in Orlando, Florida, when the AKA gathered at their annual conference to discuss “Re-Examining the Undergraduate Core in Kinesiology in a Time of Change.” The historic meeting—recounted in much detail by one of the participants, Bob Christina (2009), in a summary statement posted on the AKA website, and in essays by Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko in Quest in 2014 and another in 2018 in Kinesiology Review (KR) by Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko, Erica Taylor, and T. Gilmour Reeve—is especially significant in that it was the first time in over 40 years a collective effort had been made to identify an undergraduate core in kinesiology. Attended by 42 university administrators representing 33 institutions, the meeting was characterized by a spirited discussion after each of the four major presentations provided by Reeve, Phil Martin, James Morrow, and Roberta Rikli. The upshot of the meeting was the creation of an undergraduate core eventually agreed upon by the AKA membership designed to ensure that undergraduate majors in the field share a common knowledge base. The core is based on the concept of physical activity across the lifespan and includes four content areas: physical activity in health, wellness, and quality of life; scientific foundations of physical activity; cultural, historical, and philosophical dimensions of physical activity; and the practice of physical activity (Christina, 2009).

The AKA’s development of an undergraduate core has hopefully made academicians cognizant of the interdisciplinary nature of the field and the need to think broadly when studying the theories and assessing the policies and practical implications of physical activity programs. The core has also hopefully encouraged faculty to reevaluate and philosophize about contemporary practices. Perhaps evidence that this is occurring is gleaned from the large number of views of Chodzko-Zajko’s (2014) Quest essay and the Chodzko-Zajko et al. (2018) essay in KR. The latter essay is the third most-popular in KR, recording some 1,709 full-text views since the journal began maintaining such data in 2018. Nevertheless, the suggested AKA undergraduate core was designed to modify kinesiology programs across the country, with the goal of exposing students to the various specialization areas constituting the field. In large part, then, the AKA has, similar to the NAK, explicitly emphasized and encouraged a broad and inclusive vision for kinesiology.

However, based on my admittedly unscientific review of selected undergraduate kinesiology curriculums in the United States, there seem to be very few undergraduate programs that fully encompass the four broad knowledge categories included in the AKA undergraduate core and I seriously question if the claim by some in the field that the specializations in kinesiology have a synergistic relationship with one another is more aspirational rather than based on fact. With a few notable exceptions, the majority of AKA member institutions do fairly well in covering the scientific foundations and practice of physical activity as well as the broader concepts of health and wellness, but pay far less attention to the cultural, historical, and philosophical dimensions of physical activity. The reasons for this are many and varied. Kinesiology programs, irrespective of Carnegie classification, often lack faculty to adequately address all the disciplinary areas in the field. The types of course offerings in kinesiology programs are also dependent on the particular college in which they are housed in their institution, accreditation requirements stipulated by professional organizations, and need to offer specific courses for students preparing for careers in the myriad allied health fields now offered in higher education.

Perhaps the most salient factors, however, for the limited attention given to the cultural, historical, and philosophical dimensions of physical activity, are related to the lower status of these fields and their perceived lack of immediate applicability, qualitative rather than quantitative approach to knowledge production, and limited potential to secure research funding (Andrews, 2008; Vertinsky, 2009). It is also partly a result of the 1996 Surgeon General Report on Physical Activity and Health that led to the notion of “exercise is medicine” and priority given to STEM education, the 2009 Barack Obama “Educate to Innovate Campaign” intended to encourage students to study science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). It is, moreover, partly a result of less emphasis being placed on the arts and humanities in education more generally in the United States, a movement that philosopher Martha Nussbaum has termed “the silent crisis.” She contends, and it is difficult to argue otherwise, that as nations search for “national profit” the arts and humanities, the fields that teach the very qualities that are crucial to democracy itself, are deemphasized and pared down (Nussbaum, 2012).

Professional Amnesia Never a Good Thing

The marginalization of the cultural, historical, and philosophical areas of study are not simply reflected in kinesiology curricula but in an assortment of other ways as well, some more subtle than others. One obvious example is the replacement of retired faculty in these areas with individuals from other disciplinary fields of study. For example, upon my retirement some 3 years ago, I was replaced by two sport management specialists, a result of a combination of factors but ones made because those in charge apparently believed an expert in sport history was dispensable. The new hires, both quality academicians with stellar national reputations, also had track records as grant writers, could teach courses perceived to have immediate applicability for sport management students, and more closely identified with the management and business orientation of the program. It does not necessarily make me feel better, but perhaps I should take solace knowing it took two people rather than just one to replace me.4

Two less obvious examples of the marginalization of these fields, especially philosophy and history, can be gleaned from the faculty variables employed in the NAK evaluation of doctoral programs and changes in the editorial composition of the Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (RQES). In establishing its rankings, the NAK apparently has little regard for books, the “coin of the realm in historical research,” as noted by historian Jaime Schultz (Schultz, 2017b, p. 24). The devaluing of the historian’s craft by the NAK leadership while at once extolling science over other ways of knowing is made clear by the organization’s decision to count book chapters 5% in assessing the quality of doctoral programs, the same weight given presentations and far less than the 20% awarded journal publications and 26% awarded research funding. Tellingly, the organization awards no credit for books. And what kind of shape is SHAPE America (formerly the American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance) in when the RQES, its long-running and prestigious scholarly outlet, purports to “publish research in the art and science of human movement,” yet not one member of the journal’s editorial board has, as best I can tell, any disciplinary expertise in sociology, philosophy, or history. This is a far cry from the RQES of yesteryear which strove to be interdisciplinary in nature as reflected in its diverse editorial board and publications (Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 2020).

The diminished role of the cultural, historical, and philosophical dimensions of physical activity has negative consequences, not least of which is the lack of a true interdisciplinary approach to the field deemed necessary for its success by a host of academicians and the fact it could potentially lead to a collective amnesia and lack of self-reflection detrimental to the profession. Equally important, it does not adequately allow for the “deep literacy” which neuroscientist Maryanne Wolf convincingly argues is essential in fostering imagination, empathy, self-reflection, and critical thinking. In her highly acclaimed Reader Come Home: The Reading Brain in a Digital World, Wolfe (2018) notes, in a manner with which Martha Nussbaum must certainly agree, that consistent engagement with an extended piece of writing helps develop analytical powers and independent judgment crucial in a democracy and buttresses the daily bombardment of instantaneous digital interactions that encourages superficiality, insularity, and tribalism. Although being immersed in an extended piece of writing is not entirely the province of cultural studies, history, and philosophy, I know full well these fields are ideally positioned to foster the “deep literacy” espoused by Wolfe and convinced they can assist in developing Freeman Dyson’s “visionary birds” crucial to kinesiology now and in the future. In an ironic yet positive twist of fate, surveys indicate people are reading more during the pandemic and amidst the Black Lives Matter movement, purportedly turning to dystopias, steamy romances, and books on social justice (Burkes, 2020; Merry & Johnson, 2020).

That kinesiology has gradually evolved over the years into an area of study marked by distinct subdisciplines, or what have been referred to as “silos and bunkers,” but now perhaps more accurately termed “silos within silos and bunkers within bunkers,” should not come as a surprise to anyone as it is obviously the way of the world (Kretchmar, 2008). Because of mass technology, rapid acceleration of knowledge production, and elevated value attached to expertise and achievement, virtually every field, including all of those in the university, has seen an acceleration in specialization and an increase in narrowly prepared professionals who rarely venture out of their identified areas. In fact, the system is organized to reward, both financially and through promotions, productive “focused frogs.” I have been accurately classified as a “focused frog” and benefitted personally from the increasing specialization in kinesiology. For over 40 years, I have been committed to a line of research that attempts to more clearly understand and articulate the interconnection among sport, race, and American culture. The process for me has meant figuratively peeling off the layers of the onion in an effort to dig deeper into the lives of African American athletes and how they have confronted and been impacted by racial discrimination. Like other specialists in academia, my approach has allowed me to realize a level of scholarly prestige and attain a level of professional advancement sometimes not afforded those who study multiple issues and problems (Wiggins, 2018).

Importantly, although continuing to peel “off the layers of the onion,” I have been deeply troubled by the increased splintering and fracturing of our field. Most senior faculty can identify with the struggles that invariably take place during promotion and tenure committee meetings when trying to assess the qualifications of candidates representing diverse areas of specialization. Unable to actually assess the quality of a candidate’s credentials because of a lack of common language and different methodological approaches, committee members typically resort to counting rather than reading publications and depending on the all-important impact factor and external letters to determine if someone will be awarded tenure and/or promoted to the next academic rank. Of course, committee members also rely heavily on numbers when attempting to determine effectiveness in the classroom, using mean scores from student evaluations to determine a candidate’s academic future while intuitively knowing that a far better assessment of a faculty member’s impact as a teacher would be to distribute evaluations to students several years after they have graduated or left the university without taking a degree.

Splintering and More Splintering

Evidence of the splintering of the field has also been brought home to me by the evolution of program offerings and packaging of our curricula at George Mason University, my institution of employment for 28 years. In a matter of just a few years, we transitioned from a program in physical education, recreation, and health with a core curriculum housed in a College of Education to two separate schools, one the School of Kinesiology and the other the School of Sport, Recreation, and Tourism Management now housed in the renamed College of Education and Human Development. The School of Kinesiology offers an undergraduate degree in kinesiology and a master’s degree in athletic training, while the School of Sport, Recreation and Tourism Management offers separate undergraduate degrees in sport management, tourism, and events management, and recreation management with concentrations in outdoor recreation and therapeutic recreation. The health and physical education teacher preparation program is housed in yet another school in the college (School of Education) with very little connection, both in terms of faculty collaboration and shared courses, with the School of Kinesiology or School of Sport, Recreation, and Tourism Management. I was told by an upper-level administrator that the organizational change, which involved adding three more administrators to head up the newly created schools, was made in the college not because of any perceived educational value and improved service to students, but because it meant fewer faculty would be required to report directly to the Dean.5

Further evidence of the splintering of the field can be gleaned from the relatively low number of unsolicited manuscripts submitted to KR in its 10-year existence. As my predecessors as editor in chief of the journal can attest, the limited number of unsolicited manuscripts received by KR continues to be a serious concern, which fortunately has been offset by a series of special issues consisting of solicited essays devoted to topics of particular interest to the readership. The lack of an impact factor perhaps contributes to the limited number of unsolicited submissions to KR, but I am convinced there is a more troubling and not easily solvable reason for this situation. Unlike other scholarly journals in the field, KR is intentionally broad in scope, soliciting manuscripts that are “evaluative” and “critical” in nature. Most importantly, KR most values, as made explicit in its mission statement, “integrative research reviews that develop connections between areas of research.” In my view, KR asks academicians to pen essays for which they are generally ill-prepared and not interested in writing. The academic preparation of kinesiologists typically commits them to a particular disciplinary framework with little encouragement, or any incentives for that matter, to “develop connections between areas of research” stipulated by the journal that is the official publication of both the NAK and AKA (Kinesiology Review, n.d.). Perhaps most important, I am convinced that academicians, always pressed for time and needing publications for yearly evaluation purposes and tenure and/or promotion, avoid completing “evaluative” and “critical” essays because they perhaps take longer to write than empirical studies.

Yet one more piece of evidence of the splintering of the field is the relative lack of intense debates currently taking place in kinesiology. With a few notable exceptions, most significantly the discipline-versus-professional debate of several years ago and what name to use to describe the field, contemporary wrangling and disputes are typically confined to particular subdisciplinary areas rather than kinesiology as a whole. This is certainly a far cry from the passionate debates that used to take place when members more closely identified with the field, viewing it in familiar terms characterized by a common language and sharing of similar concerns and problems. Important to remember is that these concerns and problems were typically conveyed during large national conferences rather than in small specialty conferences attended by individuals with one particular disciplinary focus. How else to explain the famous “Battle of the Systems” in the late 19th century when leaders in the field engaged in a very impassioned debate as to the most educationally sound gymnastics system to promote in the schools? The debate was so intense that it resulted in the organization of a special meeting in 1889 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology commonly titled the Boston Conference in the Interest of Physical Training (Bennett & Lee, 1985b; Green, 1986; Regan, 2017; Van Dalen & Bennett, 1971). How else to explain the squabble in the early years of the 20th century between the spirited Jesse Feiring Williams, who espoused the importance of “education through the physical,” and the headstrong Charles McCloy, who stressed the importance of “education of the physical” (McCloy, 1940; Williams, 1930)? The feud was part of a larger dialogue among educators associated with the “new physical education” movement, including most notably Clark Hetherington and Jay B. Nash, who valiantly tried to ensure that the profession was an integral part of the broader field of education in the postindustrial world (Bennett & Lee, 1985a; Berryman, 2010; Siedentop, 2008; Van Dalen & Bennett, 1971).

With these antecedents in mind, I contend the increased splintering of the field is an issue that needs to be addressed more fully and by a wider swath of professionals in the field, and with equal fervor by those in the sciences as well as the humanities. Now more than ever, as a result of COVID-19, the Black Lives Matter movement, and the assault on the truth and value of expertise, those in kinesiology would benefit if they banded together and acted as one in the years ahead. I am, of course, not the only academician to point out the fractured nature of the field and to call for an interdisciplinary approach to the study of physical activity, exercise, sport, and other human movement forms. In fact, I am just the latest in a long line of individuals who have argued for and attempted to encourage interdisciplinary study in kinesiology for the sake of students and success of the field. There have been a countless number of prominent individuals in the profession who, through their writings, conference programming, and in other significant ways, have tried their best to bring disciplinary areas of study together and help mend the fracturing of kinesiology (Gill, 2007; Ives & Knudson, 2007; Lawson, 2007; Vertinsky, 2009). One important example of this was the 2019 meeting of the NAK organized by Brad Hatfield, longtime chairperson of the Kinesiology Department at the University of Maryland, who can rightfully be classified as a “visionary bird” (Hatfield et al., 2020). Organized around the topic “Optimization of Human Performance,” 13 academicians representing a diverse array of disciplinary perspectives each spoke eloquently about the subject from their particular vantage points. A unique feature of the meeting was a closing session in which all the contributors engaged in a dialogue focused on the importance of integration and an interdisciplinary framework to kinesiology. Although a noble, important, and praiseworthy exercise, my impression as one of the attendees was how extraordinarily difficult it was for the 13 “focused frogs” to connect with one another and truly take part in a meaningful discussion that made clear they were members of the same profession. I came away from the meeting heartened by the legitimate effort made to bring individuals from diverse disciplinary perspectives together to address the important topic of human performance, but also departed thinking that we have some unfinished business to address and creating synergy among our members is characterized by a complexity that will not be solved merely through the passage of time.6

Traveling “on an Eight-Lane Highway”

How does kinesiology move forward in the current environment, not just as a matter of survival, but in an effort to flourish and be relevant in an increasingly complicated and constantly changing world? Because of the uncertainty in the United States and virtually everywhere else around the globe, it is a difficult question to answer with any degree of certitude or finality. As is customary during times of crisis, however, it is imperative for leaders in the field to reassess current practices, consider alternative ways of doing things, and engage those in the profession in extended discussions about goals and what it is they want to accomplish. To use a concept coined by northern White philanthropists in 1896 but made famous by legendary African American intellectual and civil rights activist W.E.B. DuBois, kinesiology’s “talented tenth” should shoulder the responsibility of uplifting the field in any way they can and by all means necessary. Although aiming his comments at elite African American men mired in rigid racial segregation at the turn of the 20th century and in direct opposition to Booker T. Washington’s emphasis on industrial education, DuBois’s belief that one out of 10 men in the Black community needed to become leaders through a classical form of education and become directly involved in social change is advice that ought to be heeded by those in kinesiology (DuBois, 1903).

The “talented tenth” in kinesiology, men and women leaders in the field who are genuinely committed and knowledgeable and who have vast experiences, are ideally suited to uplift the profession and positively impact communities at the local, regional, and national levels. Imperative, though, is that those leaders represent historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and not simply predominantly White institutions. For too long, the center of the kinesiological universe has been predominantly White institutions with little regard or appreciation for how HBCUs have impacted the field, provided a home for minority faculty, and served literally thousands of students during the era of racial segregation and beyond (Hodge & Wiggins, 2010; Wiggins & Wiggins, 2011). Much could be learned from the successful partnership established between the School of Kinesiology at Auburn University, a predominantly White institution, and similar programs at Florida A&M and Albany State University, two well-known HBCUs (Price et al., 2017; Smith & Jameison, 2017). Irrespective of the connection it establishes with HBCUs, however, kinesiology must make a consistent and ongoing effort to be supportive of and provide equal opportunities for people of color, not only because it is the right thing to do but for the sake of the profession’s future. The field must stay vigilant in ensuring racial equality while at once recognizing the interconnectedness among social and economic disparities and other issues and concerns, including the current pandemic that is occupying the attention of the world.

Having said that, it is important that kinesiologists first take seriously the insights provided by David Epstein (2019) in his book Range: Why Generalists Triumph in a Specialized World. Epstein, whose first book was the highly acclaimed The Sports Gene, counters the popular notion that to realize genuine excellence in any field one has to begin specializing early in life and continue to do so. He argues in convincing detail, utilizing the works of the previously mentioned Freeman Dyson and a host of other thinkers, that this view is wrong and becoming a Nobel Laureate or a champion in sport or a music virtuoso does not necessitate early and narrow specialization. On the contrary, generalists, who are often criticized, granted little respect, and disparaged for being a “jack of all trades and master of none,” are in many instances actually better positioned than specialists to be successful and realize genuine excellence. In Epstein’s view, excellence and well-roundedness complement one another and breadth is the ally of depth rather than its polar opposite. Interestingly, for those in the sciences, the evidence makes clear individuals should aspire to breadth throughout their academic careers. In fact, armed with convincing data to support his claims, Epstein points out that students who take an interdisciplinary range of courses are much better at thinking in an analogical fashion, researchers armed with an idiosyncratic knowledge base write more impactful papers, and Nobel Laureates are 22 times more likely than their less acknowledged peers to engage in artistic pursuits outside their chosen field of study (Epstein, 2019).

Epstein does not, it is important to note, disparage specialists. He has great respect for “focused frogs,” recognizing their importance in expanding the body of knowledge and contributing to science and scholarly inquiry. But in the end, he argues that in many of the most gratifying areas of life, generalists, or “visionary birds,” are in a better position to excel and be successful. The most desirable type are “polymaths” who possess deep expertise in one or two areas but are knowledgeable of many other domains. Although “polymaths” are not as deep as specialists, they tend to be broader than generalists. To a great extent, they are similar to Hamilton creator Lin-Manuel Miranda, who has noted, “I have a lot of apps open in my brain now” (Holt, 2019).

Against this backdrop, I believe kinesiology should do more to nurture “visionary birds.” The profession stands a better chance to be impactful and contribute positively to society if it included more members who, in the words of psychologist Christopher Connolly (2011), “traveled on an eight-lane highway rather than down a single-lane one-way street.” Said another way, by using the metaphors proffered by two well-known kinesiologists, I believe we could be more effective and make greater contributions to society if we had more members who worked at various locations rather than just one spot (multiple rather than one disciplinary area) along Scott Kretchmar’s (2005) metaphorical river bank full of kinesiologists or, unlike the “six blind men” of T. Gilmore Reeve’s (2020) story, who knew just one part rather than the whole of the “amazing elephant,” understand and appreciate how all pieces of the “amazing discipline of kinesiology” fit together. Individuals with range, the term Epstein employs to describe those with multiple interests and approaches, are seemingly far less likely than specialists to become dogmatic methodologically, turn a blind eye to different techniques, and search for information to support their own views. If Epstein is correct, those with range would be beneficial to the field in that they are more prone to collaborate and exhibit “active open-mindedness” and “science curiosity” rather than “science knowledge” (Epstein, 2019, p. 228). They could add immeasurably to the profession if they joined with “focused frogs,” recognizing the potential advantages to kinesiology, not just regarding improvement in scholarship, but teaching and service as well, if its members approached their work as a team game rather than a solitary activity (Vertinsky, 2009; Wiggins, 2018).

The caveat, of course, is the level of interest individuals have in broadening their range. There are those who obviously feel much more comfortable digging deep and uncovering information and solving specific problems. There are also those, as many social scientists have pointed out, who may not have the ability to expand their range, destined to be limited in their pursuits irrespective of their efforts and work habits. Notwithstanding that fact, we know full well there have been extraordinarily talented people through the years who have failed to realize their full potential merely because they have not been provided the opportunity to do so. It seems essential, then, that everyone in kinesiology be provided an opportunity to increase their range regardless of perceived ability level and aptitudes and personal finances. My suggestion for all of us is to recall the words of Harvard paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and social justice advocate Stephen Jay Gould: “I am somehow,” wrote Gould, “less interested in the weight and convolutions of Einstein’s brain than in the near certainty that people of equal talent have lived and died in cotton fields and sweatshops” (Gould, 1992, p. 151).

For Every Serena, There Is a Tom

No doubt leaders in kinesiology are committed to providing equal opportunities for everyone and are open to the idea of cultivating an environment where both “focused frogs” and “visionary birds” can thrive. As to how that environment is established and, more importantly, what it would look like, is not as easy to ascertain. I am of the opinion, however, that if we are to broaden anyone’s range, we must acknowledge everyone develops at different rates and there is no substitute for experimentation and exploration and possessing the faith to change. We know this is true for athletes; some exhibit extraordinary talents at a young age in a singular activity, while others blossom later in life and achieve greatness in one sport after trying their hand at others. For every Serena Williams, there is an athlete such as baseball Hall of Famer Tom Seaver, who had a 4–4 pitching record as a high school senior. A similar type of career trajectory is not uncommon in academia, with some of our most productive scholars freely admitting relatively poor performances during their early school days, and only realizing success in their chosen field following multiple changes in major and course selections. Not unexpectedly, for some in kinesiology, success in academia only came after the conclusion of extended athletic careers undoubtedly marked by various levels of satisfaction and accomplishments.

Be that as it may, if I had the opportunity to live my life backwards, I hopefully would not succumb to the pressure to declare a major at such an early age and would seek out more experiences both within and outside the walls of academia. In hindsight, specializing at such an early age in physical education has caused me to consider what I may have missed academically and what I may have lost. Are we forcing the next generation of kinesiologists to pursue the same path? If I had the opportunity to live my life backwards, I would be far more understanding of my colleagues who never adhered to a specific line of research. In hindsight, I recognize more than ever the quality of an individual’s research portfolio might actually be enhanced if it is broader in context and more accessible. Are we adequately encouraging younger colleagues to pursue that course? If I had the opportunity to live my life backwards, I would give far more credit to those colleagues who continue to pursue grant opportunities in spite of multiple rejections. In hindsight, I recognize more fully the importance of perseverance and trying new things and even failing occasionally. Are we sufficiently rewarding younger colleagues for attempting to broaden their horizons even though the percentages are stacked against them? Finally, if I had the opportunity to live my life backwards, I would push back against the administration at my former institution who consistently advised younger faculty to focus on their teaching and research while insisting that service, which historically has been such a guiding principle of our field, “would take care of itself.” In hindsight, I am of the opinion that faculty, irrespective of the stage of their careers, are capable of and owe it to themselves and their colleagues to strive for genuine excellence in the three areas of research, teaching, and service. The three areas are, of course, not mutually exclusive, in spite of the fact we typically talk about them as if they were separate entities and erroneously judge them as such.

In the end, kinesiology needs to hold up as models, and provide opportunities for faculty to learn about, leaders of the past (and current leaders as well) if the field is to flourish following the pandemic and racial unrest currently sweeping the globe. While recognizing that we live in a different time and at the risk of waxing nostalgic and using as examples only the most accomplished leaders in our field, I believe it is imperative we showcase them as symbols of possibility as many of them had extraordinary range and figuratively the vast wingspan of DaVinci’s famous Vitruvian Man so desperately needed at this moment in our history (Lester, 2012; Wrynn & Burciaga, 2017). I cannot emphasize enough the historical importance of studying individuals because it will increase our understanding of the changes that have taken place in our field over time, serve as inspiration, and, perhaps more importantly, provide a much-needed sense of professional identity. Like philosophy itself and in the same vein as the arguments Maryanne Wolf makes in Reader Come Home: The Reading Brain in a Digital World (2018), historical assessments of individuals provide opportunities for reflection and to ponder broader issues of moral values, fairness, and meaning. The leadership of RQES, at least the older version of the journal, seemingly understood this full well when they commissioned historians in the 1990s to write biographies of prominent physical educators of the past. It is also why NAK set up its “Leader Speak” series of interviews with distinguished individuals in the field; why Penny McCullagh, Professor Emeritus of Kinesiology at California State University, East Bay, completed interviews with past distinguished scholars as part of NASPSPA’s 50th anniversary celebration in 2017; and why Jack W. Berryman, historian of the American College of Sports Medicine, has conducted interviews as part of the ACSM Distinguished Leaders in Sports Medicine and Exercise Science video series (ACSM, 2006; Berryman, 1996; NASPSPA, 2021; Park, 1994; Wrynn, 1999).

Looking to great figures from the past like the ones above will not, of course, guarantee the success of kinesiology. However, a better understanding of their lives, and a history of the field more generally, can perhaps keep each of us in kinesiology from turning into “a leaf who doesn’t know it’s part of a tree” and, in the words of the United States’ first Poet Laureate, Robert Penn Warren, “give us a fuller understanding of ourselves, and of our common humanity, so that we can better face the future” (President’s Message, 2017; Szasz, 2005). And what a future it promises to be. The one thing we can be assured of is the world will never be the same as a result of COVID-19 and the Black Lives Matter movement. Every institution has been impacted in one way or another and the notion of American exceptionalism has taken on new meaning, with our strengths and limitations exposed like open wounds for everyone around the world to see. Institutions of higher learning will certainly be altered by COVID-19 and the Black Lives Matter movement, with some schools likely to close, others to merge simply to survive, and yet others searching for ways to stay financially viable while maintaining the integrity of their academic programs and offering the best education possible for students. Also possible is the elimination of faculty positions and downsizing of academic programs or even worse. More certain is that all college and university faculty, irrespective of academic expertise, will be required to possess the skills necessary to disseminate information in an online fashion and recognize that much of their work will now be conducted remotely.

Thinking Broadly in a Specialized World

Under these circumstances, I hope we can prepare students who think more broadly and possess the diverse skills required to achieve success not only in kinesiology and other allied health fields, but in other professions, if they so choose. We do a disservice to our students when we merely focus on training and not a more liberal form of education, especially knowing that success in life is largely based on adjustments and increasingly having to navigate occupational transitions. Although perhaps not as intense an experience as a highly successful athlete transitioning out of sport, the majority of our students will be required to cope with adjustments and those successfully able to do so are likely those that know themselves and understand who they really are as human beings. Importantly, those qualities are, as Buddhists and many other traditional religions contend, the key to happiness, which kinesiology has unfortunately devoted little attention to over the years during its quest to ensure that individuals are dutifully adhering to exercise regimens and proper health habits (Booth, 2009; Tweitmeyer, 2012).

I hope that we can prepare students who think more broadly and recognize that an understanding of past events will not allow us to predict the future but can expand our horizons and remind us that possibilities for the field moving forward are endless and not predestined. As dire as the current circumstances are, if history has taught us anything it is that the choices we make during any crisis can have a lasting impact for years to come. The lesson to be learned is that amidst all the current constraints and horror and deaths, unique opportunities are always at hand for collective action guided by the principles of inclusivity and service and purpose. In this spirit, I suggest that those of us in kinesiology, while it is essential that we are cognizant of unanticipated constraints as well as the seemingly serendipitous nature of life, should spend far more time mapping strategy, setting goals, contemplating the questions that need to be asked, and assessing what we want to be as a professional field. Anything short of this is, if not irresponsible, very shortsighted and even self-defeating. Ultimately, we need to engage in what historian Eddie Glaude, Jr., has termed a “critical inventory of who we take ourselves to be” (Glaude, 2020, p. 143).

I also hope we can prepare students who think more broadly and take seriously the importance of “seizing the day” and enjoying the pleasures of the moment or, said another way, to “live life on the wing.” Individuals whose lives are well lived are not only those who plan for the future and respect the past, but also complement their lives with a playful curiosity and a recognition of their own mortality that leads them to seek out a variety of experiences, try new things, and make each day special. Accompanying, and ultimately enriching this approach, must be a genuine concern for helping all people, as Hal Lawson has so eloquently pointed out (Lawson, 1997). Helping people must be a comprehensive concept, with individuals of varying colors and different sociocultural backgrounds needing to be an integral part of kinesiology and provided the same services, privileges, and rewards as everyone else if the profession is to realize its full potential. Helping people must be an all-encompassing concept, based on the understanding that the artificially contrived divisions we have created have their advantages, but often inhibit interdisciplinary approaches dealing with large issues and concerns. Helping people must be a wide-ranging concept, founded on the principle that the field is more likely to remain essential if it assumes the role of an octopus and has its many arms tethered in some way to the university, local community, region, nation, and the world. While isolation has been the watchword during the pandemic, it is not a mantra kinesiology can afford to adopt.

Finally, I hope we can prepare students who think more broadly and realize any life well lived, is sprinkled with multiple failures, disappointments, and setbacks—as is true of most visionaries. Everyone experiences failures in their lives that test their resolve and, in some cases, are excruciatingly painful and disheartening. My advice to all kinesiology students is that they should, if not necessarily embrace failure, recognize its redemptive power, which can potentially inspire changes and alterations in approach that will lead to improvements in their lives and make them much more effective and impactful. The most successful people I know have turned failure on its head, using it, learning from it, been energized and motivated by it, rather than being crippled by it.7 Although it is no mystery that successful people typically work hard, have good ideas, and are disciplined, imaginative, and persistent, they also learn from their failures and “then focus on what needs to be improved instead of thrashing around and changing everything” (Noonan, 2019). Examples of this are many and varied. Home run king Babe Ruth struck out 1,330 times during his legendary baseball career; the great hoopster Michael Jordan was cut from his high school’s varsity basketball team as a sophomore; Thomas Edison was told by his teachers he was “too stupid to learn anything”; Oprah Winfrey was born to a single mother and lived in poverty for much of her life before becoming a television mogul and multi-billionaire; and Academy Award-winning director Stephen Spielberg was rejected multiple times by the University of Southern California’s School of Cinematic Arts (Creamer, 1974; Feloni & Lutz, 2014; Gabler, 2007; Lazenby, 2014; McBride, 2011). “Failure,” wrote the great poet Maya Angelou, “is only a temporary change in direction to set you straight for your next success” (Present Outlook, 2020).

In all, kinesiology needs the rather odd-looking amphibians with the smooth looking moist skin and bulging eyes who like to burrow deeply in the mud as well as the high-flying warm-blooded vertebrates with the great eyesight. Let us trust that we can develop both in the years ahead. I am optimistic we can because I am aware of the foresight and wisdom and creativity of my colleagues. Kinesiology, like every profession always a work in progress that “must be constantly improved, consistently justified, and incessantly stewarded” (Lawson & Kretchmar, 2017, p. 203), will certainly be better for it and so, by extension, will all members of society. It would be potentially beneficial in an assortment of different ways, perhaps ensuring we could say with veracity that kinesiology is “really a discipline” rather than “loosely linked subgroups” if asked once again to rationalize to the National Research Council why the field’s doctoral programs deserve to be included in its highly prestigious taxonomy (Thomas et al., 2007, p. 190). Perhaps it would even allow us to convince the National Research Council that kinesiology is a field whose interdisciplinary approach qualifies it to be listed under the categories of the humanities and social and behavioral sciences as much as the biological and health sciences. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, additional high-flying birds with great vision and an interest in canvassing broad landscapes might provide additional meaning and help defend against those who belittle and trivialize play, games, exercise, sport, and other human movement forms we hold most dear. It is the least we can do for our professional forebears and the next generation of kinesiologists.

Notes

1.

The central message of Dyson’s analogy has important similarities to those expressed by British philosopher and political theorist Isaiah Berlin which, in turn, impacted the thinking of political forecaster and science writer Philip E. Tetlock, among others. In 1953, Berlin wrote The Hedgehog and The Fox, the title a reference to a fragment attributed to the ancient Greek poet Archilochus (“A fox knows many things, but a hedgehog one important thing”). Claiming he never intended the book to be a serious philosophical discourse but “a kind of enjoyable intellectual game,” Berlin divides writers and thinkers into two categories: hedgehogs who view the world largely through one single idea (e.g., Plato, Lucretius, Friedrich Nietzsche) and foxes (e.g., Herodotus, Aristotle, Shakespeare) who draw on a variety of experiences and do not depend on one single idea to guide them (Jahanbegloo, 2000, p. 188). Tetlock borrows Berlin’s concept in his very interesting work on political forecasting, claiming that “hedgehogs have one grand theory which they are happy to extend into many domains, relishing its parsimony, and expressing their views with great confidence.” On the other hand, foxes “are skeptical about grand theories, diffident in their forecasts, and ready to adjust their ideas based on actual facts.” Interestingly enough, Tetlock notes that foxes fare far better than hedgehogs in political forecasting, partly because they “cherry-pick idea fragments from the whole array of hedgehogs” (Brand, 2007, pp. 2–3). Stephen Jay Gould also employed the analogy of the fox and hedgehog (Vertinsky, 2009).

2.

Myles Brand, former president of the University of Oregon, Indiana University, and National Collegiate Athletic Association, who is best known as the man who fired legendary basketball coach Bobby Knight, makes the point very well about academics who parlay their national reputations and prestige into financial rewards and institutional support at their home institutions. The phrase “national disciplinary peer groups” is his chosen terminology (Brand, 1992).

3.

There are currently only 22 doctoral programs in physical education teacher education, down from a high of 27 in 2004. Two of the most recent doctoral programs in physical education teacher education to be eliminated were those at Purdue University and University of Virginia.

4.

This is not a comment on the quality of the two academicians who replaced me, but simply one more example, in my view, of the minimal respect and appreciation for history.

5.

When this organizational change was made, I immediately recalled John Barth’s oft-quoted statement, “More history’s made by secret handshakes than by battles, bills, and proclamations.”

6.

Another important example of an interdisciplinary approach was the NAK meeting organized by Maureen Weiss in 2012. She brought individuals together from various disciplinary perspectives to analyze “Physical Activity Across the Lifespan.”

7.

As Carol Dweck (2007) has noted, this approach is characteristic of growth-oriented individuals who see failure as opportunities to learn and improve through problem solving, effort, and persistence. I am indebted to Maureen Weiss for making me aware of Dweck’s work.

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank Jack W. Berryman, Murray G. Phillips, Jaime Schultz, Cesar R. Torres, and Maureen R. Weiss for their cogent comments and assessments of an earlier draft of this essay.

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Wiggins (dwiggin1@gmu.edu) is corresponding author, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5349-4620.

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, R. (1998). A house divided. Quest, 50(2), 213224. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.1998.10484281

  • Park, R. (2017). Is today’s physical education the legacy that Franklin Henry had hoped for? Kinesiology Review, 6(2), 187194. https://doi.org/10.1123/kr.2017-0010

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  • Reeve, G.T. (2007). Kinesiology: Defining the academic core of our discipline: Introduction. Quest, 59(1), 14. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2007.10483531

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reeve, G.T. (2020). Kinesiology and the six blind men. Kinesiology Today, 13(1), 89. https://www.americankinesiology.org/

  • Regan, A. (2017). Mining mind and body: Approaches and considerations for using topic modeling to identify discourses in digital publications. Journal of Sport History, 44(2), 160177. https://doi.org/10.5406/jsporthistory.44.2.0160

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. (2020). Aims and scope, SHAPE America. https://www.tandfonline.com/

  • Sage, G.H. (2013). Resurrecting thirty years of historical insight about kinesiology: A supplement to ‘what is kinesiology?’ Historical and philosophical insights. Quest, 65(2), 133138. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2013.773534

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schultz, J. (2017a). A history of kinesiology. In C.A. Oglesby, K. Henige, D.W. McLaughlin, & B. Stillwell (Eds.), Foundations of kinesiology (pp. 4152). Jones and Bartlett.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schultz, J. (2017b). New directions and future considerations in American sport history. In L.J. Borish, D.K. Wiggins, & G.R. Gems (Eds.), The Routledge history of American sport (pp. 1729). Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Siedentop, D. (2008). Introduction to physical education, fitness, and sport. McGraw-Hill.

  • Smith, M.M, & Jameison, K.M. (2017). The way we never were: Postracial kinesiology and America. Kinesiology Review, 6(2), 167177. https://doi.org/10.1123/kr.2017-0007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smoll, F.L., & Berryman, J.W. (1999). Elimination of the department of kinesiology at the University of Washington: Commentary on the personal observations of Michael J. Ellis. Quest, 51(1), 14. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.1999.10484296

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Szasz, F. (2005). Quotes about history. http://hnn.us/articles/1328.html

  • Thomas, J.R., Clark, J.E., Feltz, D.L., Kretchmar, R.S., Morrow, J.R., Reeve, T.G., & Wade, M.G. (2007). The academy promotes doctoral education in kinesiology. Quest, 59(1), 174194. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2007.10483547

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tison, G.H., Avram, R., Kuhar, P., Abreau, S., Marcus, G.M., Pletcher, M.J., & Olgin, J.E. (2020). Worldwide effect of covid-19 on physical activity: A descriptive study. Annals of Internal Medicine, 173(9), 767770. https://doi.org/10.7326/M20-2665

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tweitmeyer, G. (2012). The merits and demerits of pleasure in kinesiology. Quest, 64(3), 177186. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2012.693752

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Dalen, D.B., & Bennett, B. (1971). A world history of physical education: Cultural, philosophical, comparative. Prentice Hall.

  • Vertinsky, P. (2009). Mind the gap (or mending it): Qualitative research and interdisciplinarity in kinesiology. Quest, 61(1), 3951. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2009.10483599

    • Crossref
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