Demonstrating Equitable and Inclusive Crisis Leadership in Higher Education

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  • 1 School of Kinesiology, College of Education, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA
  • | 2 Department of Educational Administration, College of Education, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA
  • | 3 College of Health Sciences and Human Services, California State University, Monterey Bay, Seaside, CA, USA

Academic leadership faces tremendous pressure to build sustainable environments that demonstrate a commitment to the principles of inclusive excellence. Currently, the convergence of dual global crises—the COVID-19 pandemic and reckoning of systemic violence and racism toward individuals from historically marginalized and oppressed groups—has led to prioritizing impactful inclusive excellence leadership processes that address justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion. However, too often, in times of crisis, the strategic prioritizing and, more importantly, allocation of resources to support inclusive excellence initiatives are seen as secondary, tangential, or nonessential to the core operational mission of academic units. In this article, the authors discuss the unique realities, challenges, and opportunities academic leaders face when leading an equitable and inclusive academic workplace and culture during and after a crisis. The authors provide fundamental inclusive excellence and justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion terminology and definitions. In addition, the authors provide attributes, behaviors, and action steps for demonstrating equitable and inclusive crisis leadership.

Not everything that is faced can be changed, but nothing can be changed until it is faced. (Baldwin, 1962, p. 11)

Academic leadership in higher education has been pushed to the forefront due to the overlapping, converging, and global dual crises of the COVID-19 pandemic and social justice movement, which was sparked by the police-involved deaths of George Floyd, Breonna Taylor, and other individuals from historically marginalized populations (Gardner, 2018; Gonzalez & Griffin, 2020; Murty, 2020). As illustrated by the opening quote by James Baldwin, acclaimed scholar, playwright, novelist, and social activist of the mid-20th century, leaders of our time must face a multitude of crises as part of their leadership responsibilities. In the case of this specific quote, Baldwin directed his attention to public, political, community, and governmental officials to encourage (or shame them into) actively confronting and developing proper solutions to the multitudes of historical social maladies and discriminatory practices that disproportionately impacted the well-being of African Americans, people in poverty, and other marginalized groups in the United States during the civil rights movement (Nagel, 2014; Russell, 2019; Young, 2014). Baldwin and other social activists called upon leadership at every level of our society to show the courage, strategic vision, empathy, and resilience to face the challenges of the day, recognize the implications, and outcomes of their leadership decisions and move toward inclusive and equitable solutions for their constituents (Russell, 2019).

From the president, to unit leaders, to program coordinators, academic leaders are now called upon to face many challenges and issues related to the inequitable treatment of various constituents of their organizations (Brown-Glaude, 2009; Hale, 2004; Smith, 2020). For example, leaders confront challenges such as ensuring equitable access to technology for students working remotely, work and leave policies for staff with childcare responsibilities, support of faculty transitioning from face-to-face to hybrid models of instruction, and addressing budgetary constraints that resulting from low student enrollment (Benn et al., 2020; Gonzalez & Griffin, 2020). Moreover, the dual crises exposed the historical, systemic, and institutionalized structures within higher education that have led to widespread marginalization, denial of access, and outright discrimination against historically underrepresented groups who make up the ranks of faculty, students, and staff (Gonzalez & Griffin, 2020; Moerschell & Novak, 2019). Finally, leaders have had to reckon with institutions’ strategic priorities, particularly those that serve to demonstrate a commitment to inclusive excellence, that are contextualized, implemented, and sustained in our academic programs before, during, and after these trying times (Russell, 2019; Stewart & Valian, 2018).

All of this turmoil occurs in a very public space with increased pressure and demands from constituents of respective institutions to address concerns and issues immediately and comprehensively. Factors such as increased vigilance of advocacy groups, the impact of social media, increased scrutiny of the value of higher education, social protests, demand from institutional constituents, changing directives from upper administration, and well-publicized missteps by higher education leadership often found in publications such as The Chronicle of Higher Education and Inside Higher Ed amplify these pressures (Argenti, 2020; Brown & Mangan, 2018; Gose, 2018; ProInspire, 2020). We argue that critical to our academic programs’ successful sustainment and transition is the intentional centering of inclusive excellence, which encompasses justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion (JEDI) principles, in our leadership, strategic visioning, and decision-making processes (Smith, 2020; Sweeney, & Bothwick, 2016). Considering the current crises and future times of uncertainty, utilizing an inclusive excellence leadership approach is paramount to the support and success of students, faculty, and staff. This article will provide readers with attributes, behaviors, and action steps for kinesiology leaders who wish to demonstrate inclusive excellence leadership, exemplified by equity and inclusion, during the current crisis and beyond.

Inclusive Excellence Leadership Matters in a Crisis

An inclusive excellence approach to strategic leadership is paramount for an academic unit during a crisis and soon thereafter (Garcia-Alonso et al., 2020; Zheng, 2020). A crisis, by definition, is an event or period of time that leads to or results in significant change, upheaval, deviation from the status quo, and potentially the formation of significant, complex issues that impact the overall workings of an organization. Crises impact how the “business” of an organization, in this case, higher education academic units, is performed for a significant time. Crises are inevitable. Whether due to a racial incident on campus, global health pandemic, or national demonstrations against injustice, a crisis will significantly impact day-to-day operations.

However, counterintuitive as it may seem, a crisis is a prime opportunity to build a more sustainable climate that demonstrates the principles and values of inclusive excellence that directly addresses historical inequities related to inclusive excellence (Gonzalez & Griffin, 2020; Murty, 2020; ProInspire, 2020; Russell, 2019; Williams, 2020). In addition, crises can be a catalyst for systemic change within academic units that often are overlooked due to a lack of urgency or demand from faculty, staff, and students (Russell, 2019; Williams, 2013; Zheng, 2020). By framing a crisis as a catalyst for change with inclusive excellence as a lens, leaders can make substantial progress toward the goals of sustaining equitable and inclusive climates and work environments within their units (Brown & Mangan, 2018; Garcia-Alonso et al., 2020).

Such windows of opportunity allow for leadership to address organizational practices, structures, norms, and policies that detrimentally impact the advancement and well-being of historically marginalized groups while building more equitable alternatives (Chin & Trimble, 2015; ProInspire, 2020; Smith, 2020). However, too often, inclusive excellence strategic initiatives are narrowly defined, under-resourced, lack buy-in from key constituents, and limited in scope relative to other administrative and unit-wide activities such as budgeting, hiring, and student enrollment processes (Asare, 2019; Williams, 2013; Zheng, 2020). Moreover, when positioned as a response to a crisis, these efforts are often perceived as token attempts to provide short-term remedies to institutionalized problems that result in little to no significant impact on cultural structures and practices (Garcia-Alonso et al., 2020; Russell et al., 2019). Consequently, when a crisis occurs, such as the George Floyd shooting protests, academic leadership is slow to develop appropriate responses to demands for JEDI (Dobbin & Kalev, 2016; Newkirk, 2019; Sweeney & Bothwick, 2016).

Inclusive Excellence in Practice

To best advance inclusive excellence during times of crisis, there are a variety of considerations. In the sections that follow, we first present important key terms and definitions, contextual considerations, and then move into discussion of aspects of leadership critical to advancing JEDI. In addressing aspects of leadership, we offer specific leadership attributes, behaviors, and action steps that can undergird inclusive excellence crisis leadership.

Key Terms and Definitions

The following terms and definitions form the foundation for our discussion. However, be aware that these definitions are purposely broad and generalized. In addition, there is a constant societal evolution of these terms and definitions. Consequently, leaders should review the literature and consult with experts for the latest perspectives regarding these terms:

  1. (a)Crisis Leadership: A form of leadership that focuses on strategic administrative processes such as personnel support and management, communication, resource allocation, and budgeting during a time of significant uncertainty, change, or upheaval due to a low-probability, high impact event or events (Benn et al., 2020; Brown & Mangan, 2018; Gardner, 2018; Zheng, 2020).
  2. (b)Diversity: The state of or range of respective differences, representations, experiences, characteristics, and dimensions an individual or group brings to a given setting or situation (Weissmark, 2020; Williams, 2013).
  3. (c)Equity: The practice or process by which an organization provides access, support, and resources to individuals or groups of individuals based on their respective needs fairly and impartially (Smith, 2020; Stewart & Valian, 2018).
  4. (d)Inclusion: The process by which an organization facilitates access to resources and ensures that contributions from individuals, particularly those from historically marginalized groups, within a respective organization are acknowledged, valued, integrated, and influence that organization’s culture and core structures, norms, and practices (Asumah & Nagel, 2014; Hale, 2004; Sweeney & Bothwick, 2016).
  5. (e)Inclusive Excellence Leadership: A leadership approach that positions diversity, equity, inclusion, and justice values and principles central to administrative decision-making processes, practices, and culture-sustaining activities (Russell, 2019; Williams, 2013).
  6. (f)Justice: The practice or process by which historical and institutionalized structures, mechanisms, and barriers to access, opportunities, and advantages are dismantled and removed and impacted individuals are provided appropriate reparations and restored (Asumah & Nagel, 2014; Baldwin, 1962; Nagel, 2014; Young, 2014).

Contextualizing Crisis Leadership Approaches

Due to the diversity of institutional contexts (e.g., personal leadership approach or style, institutional support, available resources, budget, etc.), it is vital to consider the following perspectives before discussing leadership attributes, behaviors, and action steps:

  1. (a)During a crisis, whether large or small within the global or local setting, inclusive excellence leadership should be central to decision-making processes. In particular, how every decision impacts the more marginalized populations within an academic unit must be at the forefront of every conversation (Garcia-Alonso et al., 2020; Gonzalez & Griffin, 2020; Williams, 2020). Leadership should strongly consider systematic engagement in an equity pause—a process of deep reflection and sharing of perspectives in an effort to center the strategic design and planning process around inclusive excellence goals (Public Design for Equity, 2020).
  2. (b)No singular approach to inclusive excellence leadership will work at every institution or academic unit. Instead, best and promising practices must be contextualized for a given setting based on variables such as available resources, strategic initiatives, institutional support, and expected outcomes (Moerschell & Novak, 2019; Newkirk, 2019).
  3. (c)A crisis of some sort is inevitable, and its impact will be felt long after the unit “returns to normal.” As a leader, you cannot crisis-proof your academic unit. Your efforts cannot stop a crisis from occurring. However, you can better prepare your unit to demonstrate inclusive excellence highlighted by equitable and inclusive processes that support all constituents (Argenti, 2020; Gigliotti, 2017; Murty, 2020).
  4. (d)There are many models and frameworks to consider regarding inclusive excellence and crisis leadership. Educate yourself on these options and strategically develop a model that works for your situation (Benn et al., 2020; Brown-Glaude, 2009; McNair et al., 2020).

Fourteen Key Attributes of an Inclusive Excellence Crisis Leader

The literature is clear on the characteristics and attributes of influential leaders, specifically those that utilize an inclusive excellence approach. The following list (Table 1) is not exhaustive and serves as a general compilation of the more frequently cited attributes of inclusive excellence crisis leaders (Conners, 2020; Fuller et al., 2020; Gardner, 2018; Gigliotti, 2017; Gose, 2018; Hale, 2004; Hollins & Govan, 2015; Jana & Baran, 2020; McNair et al., 2020; Moerschell & Novak, 2019; Newkirk, 2019; ProInspire, 2020; Russell, 2019; Williams, 2020). If a leader seeks to develop and sustain an inclusive environment, they must demonstrate or be willing to develop the previously mentioned attributes. Without these foundational attributes it is difficult to envision a leader, particularly in times of crisis, effectively guiding an organization that truly exemplifies inclusive excellence. It would behoove organizations to select leaders who demonstrate these attributes as well as support the professional development of current leaders as it relates to these attributes.

Table 1

Attributes of Inclusive Excellence Crisis Leaders

• JEDI oriented• Bold and resilient
• Team builder• Strategic and forward thinker
• Empathetic and compassionate• Trustworthy and transparent
• Accessible• Charismatic and inspiring
• Decisive• Effective communicator
• People centered• Adaptable and flexible
• Reflective• Emotionally intelligent

Note. JEDI = justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion.

Six Key Behaviors of an Inclusive Excellence Crisis Leader

What behaviors should inclusive excellence leaders demonstrate during, before, and after a crisis? Table 2 provides leadership scenarios based on recommended behaviors of effective inclusive excellence leaders during a crisis. Behaviors may include, but are not limited to, the following (Argenti, 2020; Asare, 2019; Banaji & Greenwald, 2013; Brown-Glaude, 2009; Conners, 2020; Eberhardt, 2019; Fuller et al., 2020; Garcia-Alonso et al., 2020; Gardner, 2018; Gigliotti, 2017; Gonzalez & Griffin, 2020; Gose, 2018; McNair et al., 2020; Moerschell & Novak, 2019; ProInspire, 2020; Russell, 2019; Russell et al., 2019; Williams, 2020; Zheng, 2020):

  1. (a)Addresses practices, structures, and policies that facilitate systemic, historical, and institutional inequities: Inclusive excellence leadership is essential during a crisis because social inequities and discriminatory policies are exposed to public scrutiny. Identify and address directly biased, marginalizing, and discriminatory cultural norms and behaviors. Attention to policies and overall well-being of the most vulnerable populations within our units, usually staff and junior faculty, is also paramount to building a culture of inclusive excellence;
  2. (b)Demonstrates the 4Cs of communication: All messaging must be clear, concise, consistent, and coordinated across social media and institutional platforms. Inconsistent and insufficient communication is the bane of leadership during a crisis. It is imperative that the manner, content, and frequency of communications are reviewed and vetted appropriately before dissemination, or a leader runs the risk of causing more damage to well-intentioned JEDI efforts than if they said nothing at all;
  3. (c)Utilizes data-informed decision-making processes: Utilize available data to inform and justify strategic decisions that impact units. In particular, budget cuts, diverse student enrollment, retention rates, and allocation of funds for JEDI strategic initiatives are areas where data can best allow constituents to understand and perceive that there is transparency about decision-making processes;
  4. (d)Serves as a champion for inclusive excellence strategic initiatives: Use administrative positioning as an unit leader to openly support social justice, inclusion, and equity efforts and activities that draw attention to and remedy social inequities that impact a broad range of constituents of your community, institution, and academic unit;
  5. (e)Steers clear of performative activism: Actions and decisions must have a tangible and noticeable impact on diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) goals. Crisis management is not simply about saying the right thing, putting out the customary statement of support for marginalized groups, or making the “right” symbolic gestures that speak to the institutional inclusive excellence strategic goals. It also involves making real and permanent changes that have an impact on a unit’s culture and structure; and
  6. (f)Allocates resources equitably and consistently: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a clear financial impact on the world economy that burdened many of the most vulnerable groups on our campus, particularly staff and students. Likewise, the mental health needs of students, staff, and faculty skyrocketed due to the social concerns of police brutality, transitioning to instruction models for remote learning, and isolation due to COVID-19. Identifying and addressing financial, technological, and other barriers to equitable access to resources and support is a priority for leaders. A broad and diverse range of perspectives should inform any strategic decision-making processes regarding resource allocation to reduce the impact of biases and blindspots, the perpetuation of historical administrative practices, and overlooking traditionally marginalized groups.

Table 2

Behaviors of an Inclusive Excellence Leader in Real-World Scenarios

BehaviorScenarioActionLesson
Addresses practices, structures, and policies that facilitate systemic, historical, and institutional inequitiesAfter reflecting on the recommendations from a unit climate study and speaking to a number of faculty and students, you realize that a number of policies and practices within your unit are antiquated, gender biased, and disproportionally negatively impact the experiences of individuals from diverse backgrounds. In addition, you have received complaints about the unit’s core curriculum having very little representation of contributions of scholars from diverse backgrounds in the course materials.Form a task force to identify, review, and provide recommendations to address impactful elements of the unit’s environment. The task force should focus on only 1–3 aspects of the unit (e.g., climate of inclusion, promotion and tenure policies, curriculum, etc.) at a time. In addition, recommendations in alignment with core unit and institutional missions and priorities should be acted upon in a timely and transparent manner.This is a time to be strategic, intentional, and deliberate with your strategic decisions. Support and resources from experts in inclusive excellence are readily available. The need to address institutionalized bias and racism is long overdue. However, without faculty buy-in, allocation of necessary resources, and professional development opportunities that reinforce messages and actions these efforts are not sustainable.
Demonstrates the 4Cs of communicationYou are contemplating when and how to best address a recent event on campus where students from a historically underrepresented group, some from your unit, were involved in a racially charged incident involving campus authorities.Do not hesitate to communicate with your constituents. Say something! However, be informed prior to sending out a communication. What were the details of the incident? What can you legally or administratively say about the incident? Time all communications with the most up-to-date information. Align your communications with those of others by the institution. Focus on factual information and ground the communication in the strategic priorities, mission, and goals of the unit and institution. Provide updates as new information is made available and with constituents who provide feedback on your communications.Saying nothing about a crisis can leave constituents wondering about a leader’s commitment to inclusive excellence and the well-being of faculty, staff, and students. Conversely, communicating the wrong sentiment, perspectives, or simply poor wording can lead to an extremely negative reaction from constituents. Use caution and seek counsel from those with an inclusive excellence background.
Utilizes data-informed decision-making processesA local newspaper runs a story documenting the lack of student ethnic and racial diversity of the incoming cohort of 1st-year students. You have been asked by a student advisory group and faculty to provide information and resources to address your unit’s recruitment efforts.Utilize institutional data sources to support strategic initiatives and priorities. Trend data concerning inclusive excellence issues such as the recruitment, retention, and graduation of diverse student populations are easily obtained from the appropriate administrative units.Utilizing data, and more importantly sharing that data with unit constituents, allows a leader to demonstrate that strategic decisions are made in an informed and deliberate way. The careful review of available information is used to develop impactful and actionable strategic decisions.
Serves as a champion for inclusive excellence strategic initiativesYou have been asked to provide a keynote lecture at a professional meeting of scholars in kinesiology. You decide to focus your lecture on inclusive excellence leadership.Provide a lecture that highlights relevant and practical applications of the principles of inclusive excellence leadership. Contextualize comments to your respective academic unit and institutional environment. Use evidence-based practices and strategies as the foundation of comments. In addition, speak to challenges and solutions to common problems with sustaining an inclusive environment.You can use your platform as a leader to energize others who are willing to develop the skills to be inclusive leaders. Your aim should not be to simply point out the problems or challenges associated with inclusive excellence leadership. As a leader you must present practical solutions that encourage others to consider the possibilities and benefits of making the strategic efforts to build an inclusive environment.
Steers clear of performative activismStudents and faculty from campuses across the country are engaging in social justice marches, initiatives and activities. You feel you must do something or be considered apathetic to the crisis that is impacting your constituents, particularly those from underrepresented groups.Clearly outline the purpose of the inclusive excellence communication, initiative, or activity to constituents of your unit. Focus on what aligns with the values, mission, and ethics of the unit. Use the strategic plan and priorities of your institution and unit as the core of your stance.Grounding activism in the strategic mission and priorities of the organization or academic unit allows for a clear indication of why the success of the unit depends on taking a stand for inclusive excellence; justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion; etc. Moreover, leadership must implement impactful and permanent changes to unit processes, practices, and policies.
Allocates resources equitably and consistentlyYou have been asked by faculty to provide greater transparency of the budget as well as designate specific resources for inclusive excellence and student success initiatives.Demonstrate transparency of budgetary initiatives (e.g., graduate student stipends, faculty professional development support) with your faculty and staff. Provide an “open forum” style gathering to discuss budgetary issues (within appropriate limits). Provide information and seek questions in advance from your faculty and staff so that the conversation is grounded in the budget.Providing an opportunity for everyone to review and comment on the budget allows for a demonstration of transparency, openness, and acceptance of constructive feedback from constituents of the unit. In addition, an open dialog allows for everyone to have an opportunity to openly discuss future initiatives relevant to the unit.

Seven Action Steps That Demonstrate Equitable and Inclusive Crisis Leadership

If it is important to you, you will find a way. If not, you’ll find an excuse. (Blair, 2012)

This quote by Ryan Blair, motivational speaker, is simplistic yet powerful in its message: if inclusive excellence is vital to you as a leader, your actions will demonstrate this more effectively than any statement or speech you could ever give constituents. It cuts through the excuses and rationales for not pursuing the plethora of customary strategic inclusive excellence goals and objectives that many of our academic units and institutions espouse to have as priorities. Here, we offer seven action steps for leaders who wish to navigate better the current dual pandemics impacting our institutions and communities and build a culture within their academic units that exemplify inclusive excellence. As always, it is important to contextualize the following recommendations for the respective setting and strategic priorities (Asumah & Nagel, 2014; Banaji & Greenwald, 2013; Benn et al., 2020; Chin & Trimble, 2015; Conners, 2020; Eberhardt, 2019; Fuller et al., 2020; Gonzalez & Griffin, 2020; Hollins & Govan, 2015; McNair et al., 2020; ProInspire, 2020; Russell et al., 2018; Smith, 2020; Stewart & Valian, 2018; Sweeney & Bothwick, 2016; Williams, 2020; Zheng, 2020):

  1. (a)Engage in a comprehensive program review or “audit” performed by an expert in inclusive excellence. Seek support from your institution’s office of diversity and inclusion or similarly focused institutional units to conduct a review of your unit’s inclusive excellence-oriented resources, environment, processes, curriculum, and practices. This review should look specifically at key metrics, policies, practices, and procedures (e.g., hiring processes, student award and honors nomination processes, financial package allocation including assistantships, recruitment practices, curricular issues, representation of diversity in social media, etc.);
  2. (b)Conduct a climate study, including faculty, staff, and students within your academic unit, that seeks information on critical cultural and structural components including sense of belonging and welcomeness, prevalence and types of microaggressions, curricular bias, availability of mentoring, perspectives of key administrative policies and practices (particularly for staff), and availability of resources (e.g., financial, teaching, etc.);
  3. (c)Review your unit’s and institution’s current strategic plan and evaluate progress toward goals and objectives aligned with inclusive excellence. Review metrics and alignment with institutional strategic goals as well as the goals of prominent professional organizations;
  4. (d)Provide spaces and opportunities for constituents to engage in critical conversations about inclusive excellence topics in a safe, empowering, and solution-oriented environment. Work with experts (e.g., mental health, social activism, etc.) to prepare for these conversations and experiences and consider including skilled moderators to ensure all participants feel included and valued;
  5. (e)Connect to experts and units within local and professional communities and institutions to provide constituents information about and access to resources. Many faculty, staff, and students are unaware of the accessible options for support found on many campuses. A prime example is the office offering psychological and mental health support on campus, where many services are available at no or deeply discounted costs;
  6. (f)Personally model reflection, emotional intelligence, and self-care to faculty, staff, and students. Everyone is watching and judging your performance in a time of crisis. You are not an asset to your unit if you are burned out, irritable, and fearful of the future. If this means taking a few vacation days or simply working remotely from home, do it. You are engaging in impactful decision-making processes and must be mentally, physically, and socially able to fulfill your responsibilities; and,
  7. (g)Support faculty, staff, and students’ participation in activities and informal “wellness days” to maintain themselves during these trying times. Staff and students are most vulnerable to perceiving that taking time away from the office or laboratory or expressing mental health challenges can be considered problematic by their advisors and administrators. Leadership must support, advocate, and demonstrate the practice of self-care. Everyone has been stressed and impacted by the dual pandemics of the past year. These crises impact individuals in various ways. It is imperative that leaders demonstrate empathy and emotional intelligence as they support faculty, staff, and students in recovering from the past year. Leadership must build a culture of self-care and resilience going forward to successfully transition into the “new normal” of our institutions.

Concluding Comments

In this article, we aimed to illuminate the role of inclusive excellence crisis leadership, specifically JEDI efforts, during and after a crisis in the context of academic leadership. To reach the goal of providing an equitable and inclusive academic workplace and culture, a leader needs to possess and understand critical attributes, behaviors, and action steps (McNair et al., 2020; Russell, 2019; Zheng, 2020). We outlined twelve key attributes and six key behaviors of an inclusive excellence crisis leader as well as seven action steps that demonstrate equitable and inclusive crisis leadership. While they are not meant to serve as exhaustive lists, we hope to provide a starting point as well as guiding principles in the pursuit of strategic priorities to develop meaningful steps toward an equitable and inclusive academic workplace.

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Russell (russej3@auburn.edu) is corresponding author, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6534-6286.

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, D. (2020). Diversity’s promise for higher education: Making it work (3rd ed.). John Hopkins University Press.

  • Stewart, A., & Valian, V. (2018). An inclusive academy: Achieving diversity and excellence. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  • Sweeney, C., & Bothwick, F. (2016). Inclusive leadership: The definitive guide to developing and executing an impactful diversity and inclusion strategy. Pearson.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weissmark, M. (2020). The science of diversity. Oxford University Press.

  • Williams, C. (2020, April). Considering the “before, during, and after” in crisis management. HigherEd Jobs. https://www.higheredjobs.com/articles/articleDisplay.cfm?ID=2197

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, D. (2013). Strategic diversity leadership: Activating change and transformation in higher education. Stylus.

  • Young, I. (2014). Five faces of oppression. In S. Asumah & M. Nagel (Eds.), Diversity, social justice, and inclusive excellence: Transdisciplinary and global perspectives (pp. 332). State University of New York Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zheng, L. (2020, May). Adapt your D & I efforts to the reality of the crisis. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2020/05/adapt-your-di-efforts-to-the-reality-of-the-crisis

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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