Lessons Learned During the Pandemic: Recommendations for Kinesiology Programs’ Emerging Future

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  • 1 Division of Exercise Physiology, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA
  • | 2 School of Kinesiology, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA

In response to the pandemic, kinesiology programs rose to the challenge of remote teaching by incorporating novel teaching and classroom approaches to ensure students continued to receive excellent instruction. This review identifies remote and hybrid teaching elements, many used by our two kinesiology programs, which showed promise during the pandemic. Using evidence and best practices, we argue for kinesiology programs to include these teaching strategies moving forward. Discussions focus on improving students’ success, learning, and matriculation into the vulnerable first year of college; rigorous teaching and assessment practices for laboratory and lecture classes in core curriculum; and remote capstone opportunities to prepare graduates for a postpandemic workforce. As we anticipate a physical return to campus, the strategies described here show promise for keeping kinesiology programs innovative and competitive in the emerging future of hybrid teaching in higher education.

In response to the pandemic, colleges and universities across the globe were forced to rapidly transition to remote teaching. Remote learning predates the COVID-19 pandemic, but the immediate impact of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak marked its exponential growth. The impact of COVID-19 on higher education has been well documented (Misra & Mazelfi, 2021); during the immediate transition to remote teaching, instructors were faced with the challenge of creating effective distance learning environments and most efforts targeted transitioning course content online with little emphasis on online pedagogy (Crawford et al., 2020). Just a few short months later, we were preparing for the first full semester of remote instruction with increased focus directed to pedagogical content and best practices. Most kinesiology programs rose to this challenge by incorporating novel approaches to ensure students continued to receive excellent instruction and graduate with the knowledge, skills, and abilities to be competitive applicants in the workforce. This period of rapid and dramatic program redesign tested our ingenuity, resourcefulness, and resiliency.

While we eagerly anticipate the opportunity to bring students back to campus and return to normal, we encourage faculty and administrators in kinesiology programs to consider continuing the innovative teaching practices implemented during the pandemic. In fall 2020, a convenience survey from our large exercise physiology program captured data from 469 students (>50% student body) regarding preferences for course delivery methods. Most students preferred traditional/on campus courses (70%) to online asynchronous (19%) or online synchronous (23%); however, the greatest preference was for a HyFlex model (79%, students choose to attend on campus, online or a combination). This suggests that if we are to be competitive in enrolling and retaining students, kinesiology programs and administrators should support the development and inclusion of remote and hybrid (e.g., some in-person, some online) teaching elements (e.g., with incentives and reward for time and effort, improved institutional support, and improved educator skills; O’Doherty et al., 2018).

Coming together to discuss lessons learned while teaching during the pandemic, this collaborative effort included kinesiology faculty and administrators. Authors include an assistant professor in the School of Kinesiology at an R1 research institution with a moderate, undergraduate program (∼350 students) as well as a division chair and teaching assistant professor from a large (∼900 students) undergraduate exercise physiology major in the School of Medicine at a land grant, R1 research institution in Appalachia. Prior to the pandemic, the large exercise physiology program was in-person using only minor online elements such as a learning management platform (LMS). In response to the pandemic, all lecture content was moved to synchronous or asynchronous online delivery while laboratory classes continued in-person with reduced capacity. Faculty in this program were invited to participate in online pedagogy training throughout the spring and summer, and all were required to attend one online synchronous teaching best practices seminar prior to the fall 2020 semester. The moderately sized kinesiology program offered courses online during the pandemic, but the decision to teach synchronously or asynchronously was left to the faculty. The university offered online course development training and course redesign opportunities to interested faculty.

Working together to review evidence-based teaching and learning best practices, relevant peer-reviewed literature, and new teaching methodologies relied on during the pandemic, we have identified promising strategies to guide us as we prepare for this emerging future of course instruction in higher education. These recommendations are drawn primarily from what we have done in our own programs and classrooms (in some instances, as scholarship of teaching and learning or education-based action research and, at times, anecdotal) while providing evidence from peer-reviewed literature and teaching best practices to support our suggestions. Discussions focus on improving students’ success, learning, and matriculation into the vulnerable first year of college; rigorous teaching and assessment practices for laboratory and lecture classes in core curriculum; and remote capstone opportunities to prepare graduates for a postpandemic workforce.

First-Year Student Integration and Transition

Despite the changes facing higher education, student retention continues to be a major obstacle for most institutions. Student retention is often defined as first-time, full-time college students returning to the institution for their second year. Generally, those who do return for their second year will persist until graduation. As of 2019, ∼81% of first-year students at public 4-year institutions of higher education were retained (U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, 2019). As leaders in kinesiology, we are charged with improving retention rates at our institutions as more students means more funding within the program. Perhaps more importantly, improving student retention ensures more individuals can enter the workforce with a college degree and higher earning potential. Looking forward, as we compete within our own and across institutions for student enrollment, incorporating programmatic changes to improve student retention is critical.

Historically, retention research has investigated why students fail to persist with the goal of developing retention strategies that would allow these students to be successful (Shushok & Hulme, 2006). Many variables directly or indirectly influence undergraduate retention (e.g., demographics, academic preparation, student engagement, financial need), and many intervention strategies are effective utilizing a top-down approach (e.g., revising course scheduling and D/Fail/Withdrawal policies; Choy, 2001; Demetriou & Schmitz-Seiborski, 2011; Kuh et al., 2006; Noyens et al., 2019; Retention Study Group, 2004). While there are many avenues by which to address retention, one approach kinesiology programs can implement is to facilitate student engagement and success, including interventions to increase academic and social integration and supporting academic development of their first-year students.

Academic integration, or connection to the academic life of an institution, is positively related to undergraduate retention (Retention Study Group, 2004). Specifically, purposeful student–faculty interaction and even students’ perceptions of support for student learning affect their decisions to persist in a program (Kuh et al., 2006; Tinto, 2004). In fact, students’ perception of access to faculty help and support is one of the most important factors that significantly reduces the likelihood of withdrawing from a major or institution (Xu, 2018). Another facet of academic integration, academic advising, promotes student persistence and positively affects retention by sharing knowledge of how to successfully navigate higher education (Tinto). Kinesiology programs should have a strong advantage in retaining students because student–faculty interactions and academic advising occur within majors providing a measure of control to influence retention. The initial transition to remote teaching limited these interactions and forced kinesiology programs to develop novel ways to enhance student–faculty engagement. In our large exercise physiology program, faculty and advisors became more adept at remote meeting platforms (e.g., Zoom, Google Meet) and, in many situations, increased contact hours with students. This approach provided more opportunity to interact, both formally and informally, with students and advisees to promote academic integration and has become a permanent avenue for convenient student–faculty communication.

Successful social integration, associated with student success and greater commitment to the institution or major, is another essential component of first-year engagement (Bean, 1983; Demetriou & Schmitz-Seiborski, 2011; Kuh et al., 2006; Tinto, 2004). Social integration (the interactions between students and their social system), including informal peer group associations, affects student learning and persistence, especially in the first year of higher education (Nevill & Rhodes, 2004; Scott Swail et al., 2005). Students who experience a greater degree of social integration at the start of their first year have higher academic motivation at the end of their first year, which facilitates student retention into their second year (Noyens et al., 2019). In one study, up to three quarters of students leaving the institution discussed the difficulty of making friends in college (Wilcox et al., 2005). First-year students transferring out of our large exercise physiology program report lower social integration (Leary & Bryner, 2021), and those with lower incoming math scores report less favorable responses in areas of social integration (e.g., having fewer friends at the institution, feeling like they have less in common with other students) compared with peers (Leary et al., 2020).

One means of improving social integration for first-year students is through Living Learning Communities (LLCs), interdisciplinary collaborative experiences in which new college students who share an interest in a common theme or major live on the same floor of a residence hall. LLCs are intentionally structured around curricular and cocurricular components with the goal that students will form a community sooner during their collegiate experience and develop connections with faculty and fellow students, thereby promoting social interaction, student engagement, and retention (Gabelnick et al., 1990). An adaption of the traditional LLC, Virtual Learning Communities, offer programming through videoconferencing and can facilitate faculty–student interactions promoting student engagement in remote settings. For example, during the fall 2020 semester, faculty from both institutions engaged virtually (carried out by means of computer) with first-year students in a health professions LLC via Zoom for icebreakers and guest speakers from various career fields.

The amount of STEM coursework taken in college (especially the first year), the type of STEM courses taken (particularly mathematics), and how well students perform in STEM courses (relative to performance in non-STEM courses) figure prominently in students’ decisions to leave STEM fields (Bettinger, 2010; Seymour, 1997; Stinebrickner & Stinebrickner, 2011). Due to the rigorous scientific coursework that begins first semester of the first year (e.g., math, chemistry, and physics), undergraduate kinesiology programs are vulnerable to retention-related issues, and incoming students with weaker academic backgrounds, especially in mathematics, are at-risk (Seymour). Indeed, in our large exercise physiology program, first-year students with lower incoming math scores have a lower GPA at the end of their first semester and transfer out of the major at a higher rate (61%) than their peers (34%; Leary et al., 2020). This is consistent with previous research showing that academic preparation is an important predictor of undergraduate success and retention (Retention Study Group, 2004).

Because the first year of college offers a critical period during which to intervene, kinesiology programs should implement first-year coursework and programming to improve academic skills. For example, priority should be placed on incorporating developmental programs for strong study skills (e.g., retrieval-based study strategies) and habits (e.g., time management) as well as academic competencies for STEM-based curriculum (e.g., the ability to read and understand scientific information, analytic or critical thinking skills, applied problem-solving skills). One possibility by which to improve academic and social integration is through a first-year course (e.g., first-year seminar). These orientation courses are offered at most institutions for the primary purpose of aiding students in navigating their first year of college, including developing life skills, academic strategies, and increasing a sense of belonging (Cambridge-Williams et al., 2013). First-year courses improve retention and graduation rates as well as academic self-efficacy and self-regulated learning (Cambridge-Williams et al., 2013). In our large exercise physiology program, the first-year course offers an opportunity to address retention-related issues on a manageable scale: access to faculty within the major, peers with similar interests, and class time to promote academic success strategies (e.g., study skills, time management).

Kinesiology programs looking to improve first-year student success and retention can address academic and social integration through pedagogical models that are related to student satisfaction and learning. For example, flipped classrooms require students to spend time with content (e.g., readings or lecture recordings) outside of class while in-class time is spent working through problem-based or active learning. Compared to the traditional didactic approach, the flipped classroom is associated with improved academic performance and retention (Day, 2018). Students participating in cooperative learning in STEM courses demonstrate greater achievement, express more favorable attitudes, and persist through STEM courses or programs to a greater extent than their peers who do not participate in cooperative learning (Springer et al., 1999). In an anatomy course, the use of the flipped classroom promotes long-term retention and knowledge transfer in a subsequent semester’s kinesiology course (Day). Flipped classrooms also improve higher order thinking and knowledge acquisition, and development of interpersonal skills (Davidson & Major, 2014; Koh, 2019), all of which can facilitate a first-year student’s transition to college. A flipped classroom can be online (e.g., recorded content is viewed asynchronously before attending a synchronous online classroom) or hybrid (e.g., recorded content is viewed asynchronously before attending class in-person). When combined with other learning strategies, such as discussion board posts and strategically sized breakout group discussions, learners can be effectively engaged as active participants. For a thorough review of flipped instruction, including active learning strategies in kinesiology, we suggest the review by Killian and Woods (2018).

In our large exercise physiology program, first-year students in a flipped classroom first-year course report improvements in teamwork/leadership and oral communication skills, compared with peers in a typical lecture classroom (Leary et al., 2021). This is supported by previous work showing flipped classrooms help develop critical interpersonal skills (Davidson & Major, 2014; Koh, 2019). With the transition to remote teaching during the pandemic, many faculty members presumably became comfortable with recording lectures and posting to a learning management system (LMS). These skills facilitate flipped classrooms as lecture content can be delivered before students attend class, and in-class time can be spent on cooperative learning. With a faculty member facilitating these interactive live discussions (either in-person in a hybrid course or via videoconferencing for an online synchronous course), a flipped classroom provides access to faculty within the major, thereby promoting academic engagement for first-time students. Furthermore, students working together in small groups (either in-person or via videoconferencing breakout rooms) likely facilitates the development of friendships with peers who have similar interests.

In our large exercise physiology program, introducing active learning strategies such as the flipped classroom necessitates peer-to-peer interactions and improves social integration of first-year students (Leary et al., 2021). This classroom design facilitates social integration during the vulnerable first semester of college: Students are more likely to spend time with other students outside of class, have greater satisfaction with their social life, and feel they share things in common with other students in the major. In addition, redesigning our large, first-year foundational exercise physiology course to include small group work increases class attendance and peer engagement. Compared with the typical lecture course, students report improved academic competencies including the ability to search for, read, and understand scientific literature as well as applied problem solving, teamwork, and leadership skills.

Overall, efforts to promote student engagement through academic and social integration facilitate student retention and improve development of competencies required for success in kinesiology majors. After teaching in remote and hybrid classrooms during the pandemic, kinesiology faculty are well prepared to transition first-year courses to a hybrid environment utilizing active learning strategies such as the flipped classroom model. This could increase academic and social integration as well as academic development. Looking forward, we encourage kinesiology faculty working with first-year students to consider this critical year as a promising opportunity to improve student success and engagement through first-year coursework, which utilizes innovative classroom design strategies.

Core Curriculum: Lab and Lecture Courses

Kinesiology programs intentionally design curriculum and courses to meet disciplinary standards. An undergraduate program in kinesiology typically includes course work in functional anatomy, exercise physiology, strength training, exercise testing and evaluation, and biomechanics. Although the exact course descriptions may vary between programs, the overall degree program objectives are analogous. Indeed, the American Kinesiology Association identified core content for kinesiology programs which includes principles and experiences focused on physical activity across the lifespan, including (a) physical activity in health, wellness, and quality of life; (b) scientific foundations of physical activity; (c) cultural, historical, and philosophical dimensions of physical activity; and (d) the practice of physical activity (Chodzko-Zajko et al., 2018). Typically, many traditional lecture courses are complemented by a required laboratory component intended to address the skill requirements of kinesiology-related professions. Throughout the pandemic, kinesiology programs adapted lecture and laboratory courses to online (synchronous and asynchronous) and hybrid formats, and many of these innovative pedagogical approaches could be continued after the return to campus.

Teaching and Classroom Methods

Online-only instruction can take the form of correspondence (self-paced via distance education technologies), online asynchronous (not self-paced, but delivered via distance education technologies), and online synchronous (not self-paced, may have synchronous and asynchronous elements). Evidence from a recent meta-analysis suggests that students who are enrolled in an online course have better knowledge and skills outcomes compared with students who complete a similar course in traditional classroom teaching (Pei & Wu, 2019). However, remote environments require more self-motivation as student learning outcomes are predicted by engagement with course materials (Green et al., 2018).

Three important interactions are essential to engage students effectively in online or remote coursework: learner-to-content engagement, learner-to-instructor engagement, and learner-to-learner engagement (Banna et al., 2015; Martin & Bolliger, 2018; Moore, 1989). Adequate consideration of each interaction is necessary to ensure a meaningful online experience. Kinesiology courses may provide opportunities for meaningful interactions and engagement and naturally require the use of realistic learning opportunities (e.g., case studies, lab reports, projects, and presentations), which are reported by students to be effective active learning strategies (Martin & Bolliger). Although historically offered using traditional didactic methods, when active learning strategies are integrated into flipped kinesiology courses, there is significant improvement in learning outcomes (Day, 2018).

Lessons from the spring 2020 semester and existing literature suggest that engaging remote learners using traditional didactic methods results in inefficient use of resources. Employing active learning strategies to deliver course content, such as the flipped classroom, is more effective for engaging remote learners (Day, 2018). In addition to optimizing the learner-to-content experience, the virtual learning space is conducive to peer collaboration and timely instructor feedback and guidance. In our moderately sized kinesiology program, we achieved this by taking advantage of existing functions on the institution’s LMS and other available technology.

Modes of Delivering Course Content

In many didactic and laboratory courses, we relied on recorded video lectures (via Kaltura, Zoom, Panopto, etc.) for teaching asynchronously. Best-practices recommend prerecorded lectures not exceeding 15–20 min in length and a total weekly recording time that is less than the weekly virtual meeting time. Students have positive perceptions in response to short, engaging preclass videos in a flipped classroom (Long et al., 2016). A recent meta-analysis concluded that testing and/or quizzing are successful strategies for facilitating learning. In addition, pairing preclass videos with a short quiz is an easily implemented and effective learning strategy (Yang et al., 2021). Another successful active learning strategy is the incorporation of opportunities for prediction prior to attending class (e.g., asking students to generate a prediction before presenting the correct answer; Brod, 2021). When incorporated into a required submission on a course LMS, these active learning strategies facilitate learning and improve final examination grades (Dantas & Kemm, 2008).

During synchronous class meetings, the use of breakout groups and case study style discussion prompts can be an effective means of encouraging student interactions with both content and peers. Students are often more comfortable in smaller groups and may be more likely to engage with peers. In our moderately sized kinesiology program, students in these virtual breakout rooms are more likely to use their web camera and participate in the assigned class activity than in a standard didactic lecture held via videoconference. Monitoring breakout rooms ensures students participate and instructors could consider assigning participatory points to encourage student engagement.

Effective use of technology, such as screen casting and using GoPro cameras (GoPro, Inc., San Mateo, CA) to provide first-person perspective for lab activities can aid instructors in creating authentic learning experiences. Role playing clinical simulations of case studies improves active learning and understanding of physiological concepts (Chen et al., 2016) and can be easily implemented via videoconferencing. In our moderately sized kinesiology program, the undergraduate biomechanics course includes five case-study activities; for these, technology brings the laboratory to the virtual classroom using recordings of laboratory data collection sessions, an instructional assignment overview, and multiple versions of precollected data files. Recent evidence supports the effectiveness of combining lecture and video demonstrations to improve practical skills and final grades (Donkin et al., 2019).

Learner-to-Learner Interaction

Building a community of learners ensures connectedness and is essential to prevent feelings of isolation (Bernard & de Rubalcava, 2000). Efforts supporting this goal can start on the first day of the semester. Icebreaker activities (e.g., requiring video and/or audio self-introduction posts to the LMS) support peer-to-peer engagement in a course offered remotely (Banna et al., 2015; Martin & Bolliger, 2018). In our moderately-sized kinesiology program, students are required to make an initial post and introduce themselves. In these posts, students share fun facts about themselves and/or disclose their spirit animal. Instructors can also consider incorporating the group self-enroll function for collaborative assignments: the associated sense of autonomy positively impacts engagement and sense of community. Self-enrollment groups allow students to use a sign-up sheet in order to join a group themselves. In the absence of self-enroll or a similar function, students can be encouraged to respond to the introduction posts by peers to identify shared interests, build rapport, and identify preferred collaborative group members. In addition, most LMS group functions provide access to collaborative tools, such as discussion boards, video chat sessions, blogs, wikis, group tasks, and shared document creation. These tools aid in promoting student-to-student interaction in remote courses (Martin & Bolliger).

Learner-to-Instructor Interaction

To promote learning and engagement, it is important to have multiple channels of communication with students. Virtual office hours are useful tools for furthering learning and application of acquired knowledge, while minivideos and screen casting can be effective for delivering feedback in the virtual space. Meeting with students in smaller groups using breakout rooms or scheduling meetings with small groups outside of synchronous meeting time is an effective approach for creating engaged interactions. In remote teaching, especially in large programs and classes, students may feel “like a number” or that their professors do not know or care about them. To counteract these negative perceptions, low-effort or “light touch” strategies (e.g., personalized grade updates via email) can connect students and faculty to promote increased academic performance and engagement. Indeed, personalized student coaching elicits positive effects on retention for in-person classes when coaching is about goal-setting, time management, and study skills in college (Bettinger & Baker, 2014). Such a model could easily be implemented in an online format. Compared with general emails sent to the entire class, personalized emails elicit better scores on exams, homework, and final course grades (Carrell et al., 2015).

Academic Integrity

An area of enormous concern across disciplines during the pandemic was academic integrity. Significant growth in the use of file-sharing websites occurred with the interruption of face-to-face learning (Lancaster & Cotarlan, 2021), which provided an opportunity for fee-based homework help services. Although these platforms are new, their use grew significantly during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak (Lancaster & Cotarlan), primarily due to the significant increase in online courses. Remote proctoring using web cameras is a potential solution, but it is associated with increased test anxiety (Lancaster & Cotarlan). The combination of requiring remote proctoring and browser lockdown might be effective for securing the integrity of exams as an immediate solution during the pandemic. However, the extreme control embodied by this approach is neither feasible nor desirable, in large part, because of the negative consequences for students. Instead, instructors could consider alternative strategies to ensure academic integrity such as changing exam questions every semester and restricting exam availability. The latter approach can be challenging, however, for asynchronous online courses. Posting exam results only once, but allowing students to view exam feedback may also control access to exam questions and reduce opportunities for exam-question harvesting. While these are pragmatic steps available for remote instruction, they are temporary solutions because they fail to address the larger problem of maintaining academic integrity. The ideal solution requires an innovative shift from traditional methods of assessment that allows academic understanding to be effectively evaluated.

One public institution eliminated remote proctoring during the pandemic and transitioned to authentic assessments (reflections, projects, and case studies), citing the cost and access to technology (Silverman et al., 2021). In place of remote proctoring, recommended alternatives were open-book exams. This approach does afford collaboration among peers, however. Another solution to preserving academic integrity during remote learning is to consider nonconventional assessment methods, including authentic assessments that ask students to apply their knowledge (Wiggins, 1990). In a lecture class, a summative project or case study could replace a traditional exam. A common misconception is that this will burden instructors with additional grading time and effort; however, the overall number of assessments could be reduced, and using instruments to evaluate high-order learning outcomes (e.g., rubrics) could facilitate this trade-off. Certainly, instructors could assess a student’s mastery of understanding through novel, authentic assessments. For example, in a laboratory class, authentic assessments could include assignments that require video demonstration of skills. The associated active engagement of the student in their learning could positively impact critical thinking and prepare the student for learning outside the virtual or in-person classroom and apply existing knowledge. Since this could replace in-person practical skill assessment, video demonstrations would not place additional burden on faculty.

Capstone Experiences

A capstone is a culminating experience which affords students an opportunity to synthesize and apply knowledge, skills, and abilities from prior learning (Lee & Loton, 2019). Capstones that use an experiential learning approach shift learning from teacher-centered knowledge transfer to active participation by the learner embedded within the learning process. When included in required curriculum, experiential learning is correlated with enhanced student learning and self-efficacy in exercise physiology (Hayes et al., 2020) and with improved graduation rates and employment outcomes (Bradberry & De Maio, 2019). Integrative in nature, experiential learning capstones require practical application of gained knowledge, refinement of technical skills, and/or development of higher order thinking. Often, capstones are a form of career preparation and preprofessional development, bridging academic understanding and applied experiences. Importantly, participating in experiential learning can help develop transferable skills (resilience, self-efficacy, and responsibility) that are sought after by employers (Leary & Sherlock, 2020). Indeed, in health-related fields, synthesis of prior learning, application to practice, and preparing for employability are the most highly rated purposes identified in capstone courses (Lee & Loton). In kinesiology programs, capstone experiences can take the form of applied research, internships, and service-learning or community engagement. Typically, these experiences are held in person: hands on research working with human subjects or animal models, interacting with clients and professionals in clinical settings and local businesses, and working with community members.

In response to the pandemic, many capstone courses pivoted to remote delivery. While traditional lecture courses moved to synchronous videoconferencing or asynchronous recordings, experiential learning capstones presented a more challenging transition as students needed applied opportunities in remote settings. In spring 2020, in our large exercise physiology program, the professional field placement course saw most students dismissed from their in-person internship sites. While some sites did offer remote tasks, course instructors developed remote opportunities available to all students, including developing exercise programming and education materials, recording themselves teaching this content, and posting these videos on a YouTube channel that aimed to increase physical activity of our campus’ students, staff, and faculty. At the end of the semester, 59 graduating seniors were asked about their experience in transitioning to a remote capstone experience. Major themes in their responses included improved ability to adapt to change and the ability to be more creative during their internship, as well as less motivation to complete tasks asynchronously.

As programs prepared for an unprecedented academic term in fall 2020, traditional capstone experiences were reimagined. In our large exercise physiology program, hands-on research was replaced with data analysis, coding, interpretation, and literature reviews, while student-based research presentations shifted to prerecorded, voiced-over poster presentations. In-person internships and service-learning transitioned to teleexercise or remote programming and coaching. Initially, these capstone experiences were created as a temporary alternative, but a few proved to be exceptional experiential learning opportunities. Described below, these opportunities will continue to be used when we return to in-person instruction and may offer feasible options for kinesiology programs interested in incorporating hybrid elements moving forward.

Teleexercise Capstone Experiences

Importantly, our improved ability to teach remotely has made teleexercise a reality. Our large exercise physiology program hosts a clinically based, teleexercise program with rural physicians whereby an electronic referral system is used to refer patients to our clinical exercise facility for remote exercise training. Graduate students and undergraduate interns work directly with referred patients via videoconference for client intakes, goal setting, and exercise programming. This novel capstone experience provides a direct service to underserved regions of our state and allows students to synthesize and apply prior learning (e.g., administering a health history, incorporating theories of behavior change, selecting appropriate exercise intensities for beginning exercisers). Additionally, our exercise physiology internship program offers a free exercise coaching program for university-affiliated faculty and staff. Undergraduate interns serve as student coaches who perform client intakes and preassessments via videoconference and work remotely with their clients throughout the semester. Students also develop educational materials (e.g., evidence-based infographics, recorded physical activity YouTube content) that are shared with clients to promote physical activity and active workdays. This internship experience allows students to integrate their understanding of relevant coursework (e.g., flexibility assessments, postexercise nutrition recommendations) and apply it by working directly with clients. Furthermore, students gain additional opportunities for development of important professional skills (e.g., effective communication). This emerging teleexercise model illustrates how a kinesiology program can create capstone or internship experiences while broadening its reach to serve the state by providing exercise training to clients and patients who may otherwise have limited access (e.g., those in rural settings).

Service-learning capstones fulfill a need in the community, foster good citizenship, and facilitate the personal and professional development of students (De Groot et al., 2015; Leary & Sherlock, 2020). During the COVID semesters, service-learning capstones, which typically include community partnerships, faced inherent obstacles in the online/hybrid learning environment. Partnerships with rural community organizations suffered in the transition due to inadequate Internet access. Partnerships with local senior centers and firefighters saw declined participation via videoconferencing. In our experience, existing partnerships that started in-person and then transitioned to a remote program had poorer adherence during the pandemic compared to newly created teleexercise capstone experiences that allowed participants to join a remote program from the start. While successful during the pandemic, remote opportunities may be less likely to withstand the transition back to in-person; however, incorporating hybrid options could remain a successful strategy for continuing these partnerships. Indeed, some seniors like being able to exercise from home when winter weather causes unsafe driving conditions, and some firefighters appreciate the flexibility of videoconferencing for personal training sessions. Historically, kinesiology programs that form community partnerships for service-learning opportunities have prioritized the sites’ and participants’ preferences and accommodated accordingly. Moving forward, kinesiology programs that wish to continue these partnerships may need to offer remote programming to those that are interested while still maintaining in-person programming.

Preparing Future Graduates

If capstone experiences are, at least in part, responsible for preparing near graduates for future careers, adopting hybrid and remote options are critical. Some estimates predict remote work doubling after the pandemic, and students need professional development experiences that can prepare them for this reality (Enterprise Technology Research Team, 2020). Employers seek applicants that work well in team-oriented environments and can problem solve (Gray & Koncz, 2017). After the pandemic, it is likely employers will seek applicants that exhibit high productivity in remote positions. However, findings from our large exercise physiology program suggest that students lack motivation in a remote capstone experience. This is supported by a recent systematic review identifying poor engagement and motivation as a barrier to successful e-learning in health sciences education (Regmi & Jones, 2020). Instructors may successfully counteract students’ amotivation by providing remote teleexercise capstone experiences that teach the importance of becoming comfortable and competent working remotely and incorporate relevant reflections. By doing so, undergraduate students will be prepared for a postpandemic workforce that prioritizes technological savvy, social and emotional skills, and the ability to adapt with resiliency and creativity.

Furthermore, in this new workforce, social isolation and working from home could contribute to employees having lower mental health (Aetna International, 2020) and greater sedentary behavior (McDowell et al., 2020). This unfortunate consequence of the pandemic is an opportunity for kinesiology programs to graduate students that can implement successful strategies to reverse and minimize these deleterious consequences. Therefore, we encourage kinesiology programs to incorporate remote and hybrid capstone experiences that counteract these widening public health concerns. For instance, our large exercise physiology program offers a remote exercise coaching program specifically for health science graduate students. This program provides group exercise and personalized coaching with an emphasis on mental and emotional health. Many graduate students work remotely or are isolated in a laboratory setting and have limited social connection interacting with peers. To counteract this social isolation and sedentary behavior, undergraduate student “coaches” interact remotely with graduate students delivering exercise programming and training via videoconference. Through this program, undergraduate students meet a local need while developing important discipline-specific skills and abilities related to working with clients remotely to reverse sedentary behavior, improve mental and emotional health with activity, and mitigate social isolation. Additionally, working one-on-one with clients remotely affords students the opportunity to practice engaging and connecting with others via videoconference while collaborating remotely. These are highly marketable skill sets postpandemic.

The pandemic has upended many areas of higher education, including capstone experiences. Kinesiology programs that responded with innovation and adaptability were able to develop capstone opportunities that require synthesis of prior learning and practical application of disciplinary knowledge while also preparing students for the demands of a transformed remote workplace. As we move forward, whether with the goal of improving student learning, remaining competitive for enrollment of young learners accustomed to remote learning, or preparing students for a workforce that is becoming more remote, kinesiology programs that seek to stand at the forefront of education should consider permanently incorporating some of the innovative class design and teaching strategies that we have come to rely on during the pandemic.

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  • Bettinger, E.P., & Baker, R.B. (2014). The effects of student coaching: An evaluation of a randomized experiment in student advising. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 36(1), 319. doi:10.3102/0162373713500523

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    • Export Citation
  • Bradberry, L.A., & De Maio, J. (2019). Learning by doing: The long-term impact of experiential learning programs on student success. Journal of Political Science Education, 15(1), 94111. doi:10.1080/15512169.2018.1485571

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  • Cambridge-Williams, T., Winsler, A., Kitsantas, A., & Bernard, E. (2013). University 100 orientation courses and living-learning communities boost academic retention and graduation via enhanced self-efficacy and self-regulated learning. Journal of College Student Retention, 15(2), 243268. doi:10.2190/CS.15.2.f

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  • Carrell, S.E., Kurlaender, M., & Bhatt, M.P. (2015). Experimental evidence of professor engagement on student outcomes. https://economics.ucr.edu/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/Carrell-pilot-explanation-document-for-1-25-19-seminar.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
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  • Chen, H., Kelly, M., Hayes, C., van Reyk, D., & Herok, G. (2016). The use of simulation as a novel experiential learning module in undergraduate science pathophysiology education. Advances in Physiology Education, 40(3), 335341. doi:10.1152/advan.00188.2015

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    • Export Citation
  • Chodzko-Zajko, W., Taylor, E.M., & Reeve, T.G. (2018). The American kinesiology association core content for kinesiology programs: From concept to curriculum. Kinesiology Review, 7(4), 279285. doi:10.1123/kr.2018-0050

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    • Export Citation
  • Choy, S.P. (2001). Students whose parents did not go to college: Postsecondary access, persistence, and attainment: Findings from the condition of education. National Center for Education Statistics, US Department of Education.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crawford, J., Butler-Henderson, K., Rudolph, J., Malkawi, B., Glowatz, M., Burton, R., Magni, R., Lam, S. (2020). COVID-19: 20 countries’ higher education intra-period digital pedagogy responses. Journal of Applied Learning & Teaching, 3(1), 120. https://doi.org/10.37074/jalt.2020.3.1.7

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dantas, A.M., & Kemm, R.E. (2008). A blended approach to active learning in a physiology laboratory-based subject facilitated by an e-learning component. Advances in Physiology Education, 32(1), 6575. doi:10.1152/advan.00006.2007

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davidson, N., & Major, C.H. (2014). Boundary crossings: Cooperative learning, collaborative learning, and problem-based learning. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 25(3–4), 755.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Day, L.J. (2018). A gross anatomy flipped classroom effects performance, retention, and higher‐level thinking in lower performing students. Anatomical Sciences Education, 11(6), 565574. doi:10.1002/ase.1772

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Groot, M., Alexander, K., Culp, B., & Keith, N. (2015). Experiential learning in kinesiology: A student perspective. Pedagogy in Health Promotion, 1(3), 123133. doi:10.1177/2373379915594391

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    • Export Citation
  • Demetriou, C., & Schmitz-Seiborski, A. (2011). Integration, motivation, strengths, and optimism: Retention theories past, present, and future. Proceedings of the 7th National Symposium on Student Retention, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Donkin, R., Askew, E., & Stevenson, H. (2019). Video feedback and e-Learning enhances laboratory skills and engagement in medical laboratory science students. BMC Medical Education, 19(1), Article ARTN 310. doi:10.1186/s12909-019-1745-1

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  • Enterprise Technology Research Team. (2020, October 2). The surprising impact of COVID-19 on planned enterprise technology spend. https://etr.plus/articles/covid19-doubles-permanent-wfh-improves-productivity

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  • Gabelnick, F., MacGregor, J., Matthews, R.S., & Smith, B.L. (1990). Learning communities: Crating connections among students, faculty, and disciplines. Centers for Teaching and Technology—Book Library.

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  • Gray, K., & Koncz, K. (2017). Employers seek teamwork, problem-solving skills on resumes. NACE Center for Career Development and Talent Acquisition. http://www.naceweb. org/about-us/press/2017/employers-seek-teamwork-problem-solving-skills-on-resumes

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  • Green, R., Whitburn, L., Zacharias, A., Byrne, G., & Hughes, D. (2018). The relationship between student engagement with online content and achievement in a blended learning anatomy course. Anatomical Sciences Education, 11(5), 471477. doi:10.1002/ase.1761

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hayes, R.A., Sherlock, L.A., & Leary, M.P. (2020). The role of experiential learning on self-efficacy in undergraduate exercise physiology students: A pilot study. International Journal of Research in Exercise Physiology, 15, 113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Killian, C.M., & Woods, A.M. (2018). Expanding learning opportunities in kinesiology through the use of flipped instruction. Kinesiology Review, 7(4), 332338. doi:10.1123/kr.2018-0046

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koh, J.H.L. (2019). Four pedagogical dimensions for understanding flipped classroom practices in higher education: A systematic review. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 19(4), 1433. https://doi.org/10.12738/estp.2019.4.002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kuh, G.D., Kinzie, J., Buckley, J.A., Bridges, B.K., & Hayek, J.C. (2006). What matters to student success: A review of the literature (Vol. 8). National Postsecondary Education Cooperative.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lancaster, T., & Cotarlan, C. (2021). Contract cheating by STEM students through a file sharing website: A Covid-19 pandemic perspective. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 17(1), 116. doi:10.1007/s40979-021-00070-0

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    • Export Citation
  • Leary, M.P., & Sherlock, L.A. (2020). Service-learning or internship: A mixed-methods evaluation of experiential learning pedagogies [Research Article]. Education Research International, 2020, Article 1683270. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/1683270

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    • Export Citation
  • Leary, M., & Bryner, R. (2021). An exploratory study of freshman attrition from an Appalachian physiology program. Advances in Physiology Education, 45(3), 501510. doi:10.1152/advan.00036.2020

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leary, M., Morewood, A., & Bryner, R. (2020). A controlled intervention to improve freshman retention in a STEM-based physiology major. Advances in Physiology Education, 44(3), 334343. doi:10.1152/advan.00038.2020

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leary, M., Tylka, A., Victoria, C., & Bryner, R. (2021). The effect of first-year seminar classroom design on social integration and retention of stem first-time, full-time college freshmen. Education Research International, 2021, Article 4262905. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/4262905

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, N., & Loton, D. (2019). Capstone purposes across disciplines. Studies in Higher Education, 44(1), 134150. doi:10.1080/03075079.2017.1347155

    • Crossref
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  • Long, T., Logan, J., & Waugh, M. (2016). Students’ perceptions of the value of using videos as a pre-class learning experience in the flipped classroom. TechTrends, 60(3), 245252. doi:10.1007/s11528-016-0045-4

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  • Martin, F., & Bolliger, D.U. (2018). Engagement matters: Student perceptions on the importance of engagement strategies in the online learning environment. Online Learning, 22(1), 205222. doi:10.24059/olj.v22i1.1092

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  • McDowell, C.P., Herring, M.P., Lansing, J., Brower, C., & Meyer, J.D. (2020). Working from home and job loss due to the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with greater time in sedentary behaviors. Frontiers in Public Health, 8, 597619. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2020.597619

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Misra, F., & Mazelfi, I. (2021). Long-distance online learning during pandemic: the role of communication, working in group, and self-directed learning in developing student’s confidence. Presented at the 3rd International Conference on Educational Development and Quality Assurance (ICED-QA 2020), West Sumatra, Indonesia.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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  • Nevill, A., & Rhodes, C. (2004). Academic and social integration in higher education: A survey of satisfaction and dissatisfaction within a first‐year education studies cohort at a new university. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 28(2), 179193. doi:10.1080/0309877042000206741

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  • Noyens, D., Donche, V., Coertjens, L., Van Daal, T., & Van Petegem, P. (2019). The directional links between students’ academic motivation and social integration during the first year of higher education. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 34(1), 6786. doi:10.1007/s10212-017-0365-6

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    • Export Citation
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    • Export Citation
  • Bradberry, L.A., & De Maio, J. (2019). Learning by doing: The long-term impact of experiential learning programs on student success. Journal of Political Science Education, 15(1), 94111. doi:10.1080/15512169.2018.1485571

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brod, G. (2021). Predicting as a learning strategy. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-021-01904-1

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    • Export Citation
  • Cambridge-Williams, T., Winsler, A., Kitsantas, A., & Bernard, E. (2013). University 100 orientation courses and living-learning communities boost academic retention and graduation via enhanced self-efficacy and self-regulated learning. Journal of College Student Retention, 15(2), 243268. doi:10.2190/CS.15.2.f

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carrell, S.E., Kurlaender, M., & Bhatt, M.P. (2015). Experimental evidence of professor engagement on student outcomes. https://economics.ucr.edu/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/Carrell-pilot-explanation-document-for-1-25-19-seminar.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, H., Kelly, M., Hayes, C., van Reyk, D., & Herok, G. (2016). The use of simulation as a novel experiential learning module in undergraduate science pathophysiology education. Advances in Physiology Education, 40(3), 335341. doi:10.1152/advan.00188.2015

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chodzko-Zajko, W., Taylor, E.M., & Reeve, T.G. (2018). The American kinesiology association core content for kinesiology programs: From concept to curriculum. Kinesiology Review, 7(4), 279285. doi:10.1123/kr.2018-0050

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Choy, S.P. (2001). Students whose parents did not go to college: Postsecondary access, persistence, and attainment: Findings from the condition of education. National Center for Education Statistics, US Department of Education.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crawford, J., Butler-Henderson, K., Rudolph, J., Malkawi, B., Glowatz, M., Burton, R., Magni, R., Lam, S. (2020). COVID-19: 20 countries’ higher education intra-period digital pedagogy responses. Journal of Applied Learning & Teaching, 3(1), 120. https://doi.org/10.37074/jalt.2020.3.1.7

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dantas, A.M., & Kemm, R.E. (2008). A blended approach to active learning in a physiology laboratory-based subject facilitated by an e-learning component. Advances in Physiology Education, 32(1), 6575. doi:10.1152/advan.00006.2007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davidson, N., & Major, C.H. (2014). Boundary crossings: Cooperative learning, collaborative learning, and problem-based learning. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 25(3–4), 755.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Day, L.J. (2018). A gross anatomy flipped classroom effects performance, retention, and higher‐level thinking in lower performing students. Anatomical Sciences Education, 11(6), 565574. doi:10.1002/ase.1772

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Groot, M., Alexander, K., Culp, B., & Keith, N. (2015). Experiential learning in kinesiology: A student perspective. Pedagogy in Health Promotion, 1(3), 123133. doi:10.1177/2373379915594391

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Demetriou, C., & Schmitz-Seiborski, A. (2011). Integration, motivation, strengths, and optimism: Retention theories past, present, and future. Proceedings of the 7th National Symposium on Student Retention, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Donkin, R., Askew, E., & Stevenson, H. (2019). Video feedback and e-Learning enhances laboratory skills and engagement in medical laboratory science students. BMC Medical Education, 19(1), Article ARTN 310. doi:10.1186/s12909-019-1745-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Enterprise Technology Research Team. (2020, October 2). The surprising impact of COVID-19 on planned enterprise technology spend. https://etr.plus/articles/covid19-doubles-permanent-wfh-improves-productivity

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gabelnick, F., MacGregor, J., Matthews, R.S., & Smith, B.L. (1990). Learning communities: Crating connections among students, faculty, and disciplines. Centers for Teaching and Technology—Book Library.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gray, K., & Koncz, K. (2017). Employers seek teamwork, problem-solving skills on resumes. NACE Center for Career Development and Talent Acquisition. http://www.naceweb. org/about-us/press/2017/employers-seek-teamwork-problem-solving-skills-on-resumes

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Green, R., Whitburn, L., Zacharias, A., Byrne, G., & Hughes, D. (2018). The relationship between student engagement with online content and achievement in a blended learning anatomy course. Anatomical Sciences Education, 11(5), 471477. doi:10.1002/ase.1761

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hayes, R.A., Sherlock, L.A., & Leary, M.P. (2020). The role of experiential learning on self-efficacy in undergraduate exercise physiology students: A pilot study. International Journal of Research in Exercise Physiology, 15, 113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Killian, C.M., & Woods, A.M. (2018). Expanding learning opportunities in kinesiology through the use of flipped instruction. Kinesiology Review, 7(4), 332338. doi:10.1123/kr.2018-0046

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koh, J.H.L. (2019). Four pedagogical dimensions for understanding flipped classroom practices in higher education: A systematic review. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 19(4), 1433. https://doi.org/10.12738/estp.2019.4.002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kuh, G.D., Kinzie, J., Buckley, J.A., Bridges, B.K., & Hayek, J.C. (2006). What matters to student success: A review of the literature (Vol. 8). National Postsecondary Education Cooperative.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lancaster, T., & Cotarlan, C. (2021). Contract cheating by STEM students through a file sharing website: A Covid-19 pandemic perspective. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 17(1), 116. doi:10.1007/s40979-021-00070-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leary, M.P., & Sherlock, L.A. (2020). Service-learning or internship: A mixed-methods evaluation of experiential learning pedagogies [Research Article]. Education Research International, 2020, Article 1683270. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/1683270

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leary, M., & Bryner, R. (2021). An exploratory study of freshman attrition from an Appalachian physiology program. Advances in Physiology Education, 45(3), 501510. doi:10.1152/advan.00036.2020

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leary, M., Morewood, A., & Bryner, R. (2020). A controlled intervention to improve freshman retention in a STEM-based physiology major. Advances in Physiology Education, 44(3), 334343. doi:10.1152/advan.00038.2020

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leary, M., Tylka, A., Victoria, C., & Bryner, R. (2021). The effect of first-year seminar classroom design on social integration and retention of stem first-time, full-time college freshmen. Education Research International, 2021, Article 4262905. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/4262905

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, N., & Loton, D. (2019). Capstone purposes across disciplines. Studies in Higher Education, 44(1), 134150. doi:10.1080/03075079.2017.1347155

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Long, T., Logan, J., & Waugh, M. (2016). Students’ perceptions of the value of using videos as a pre-class learning experience in the flipped classroom. TechTrends, 60(3), 245252. doi:10.1007/s11528-016-0045-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, F., & Bolliger, D.U. (2018). Engagement matters: Student perceptions on the importance of engagement strategies in the online learning environment. Online Learning, 22(1), 205222. doi:10.24059/olj.v22i1.1092

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDowell, C.P., Herring, M.P., Lansing, J., Brower, C., & Meyer, J.D. (2020). Working from home and job loss due to the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with greater time in sedentary behaviors. Frontiers in Public Health, 8, 597619. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2020.597619

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Misra, F., & Mazelfi, I. (2021). Long-distance online learning during pandemic: the role of communication, working in group, and self-directed learning in developing student’s confidence. Presented at the 3rd International Conference on Educational Development and Quality Assurance (ICED-QA 2020), West Sumatra, Indonesia.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moore, M.G. (1989). Three types of interaction. The American Journal of Distance Education, 3(2), 17. doi:10.1080/08923648909526659

  • Nevill, A., & Rhodes, C. (2004). Academic and social integration in higher education: A survey of satisfaction and dissatisfaction within a first‐year education studies cohort at a new university. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 28(2), 179193. doi:10.1080/0309877042000206741

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Noyens, D., Donche, V., Coertjens, L., Van Daal, T., & Van Petegem, P. (2019). The directional links between students’ academic motivation and social integration during the first year of higher education. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 34(1), 6786. doi:10.1007/s10212-017-0365-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Doherty, D., Dromey, M., Lougheed, J., Hannigan, A., Last, J., & McGrath, D. (2018). Barriers and solutions to online learning in medical education—An integrative review. BMC Medical Education, 18(1), 111. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-018-1240-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pei, L., & Wu, H. (2019). Does online learning work better than offline learning in undergraduate medical education? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medical Education Online, 24(1), Article 1666538. https://doi.org/10.1080/10872981.2019.1666538

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Regmi, K., & Jones, L. (2020). A systematic review of the factors–enablers and barriers–affecting e-learning in health sciences education. BMC Medical Education, 20(1), 118. doi:10.1186/s12909-020-02007-6

    • Crossref
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