Kinematic Variables of Disabled Swimmers and Their Correlation With the International Paralympic Committee Classification

in Motor Control
View More View Less
  • 1 University of Brasilia
  • | 2 Universidade Federal do Paraná
  • | 3 Manchester Metropolitan University
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $79.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $105.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $150.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $200.00

This study described the kinematic variables of disabled swimmers’ performance and correlated them with their functional classification. Twenty-one impaired swimmers (S5–S10) performed 50-m maximum front-crawl swimming while being recorded by four underwater cameras. Swimming velocity, stroke rate, stroke length, intracycle velocity variation, stroke dimensions, hand velocity, and coordination index were analyzed. Kendall rank was used to correlate stroke parameters and functional classification with p < .05. Swimming velocity, stroke length, and submerged phase were positively correlated with the para swimmers functional classification (.61, .50, and .41; p < .05, respectively), while stroke rate, velocity hand for each phase, coordination index, and intracyclic velocity variation were not (τ between −.11 and .45; p > .05). Thus, some objective kinematic variables of the impaired swimmers help to support current classification. Improving hand velocity seems to be a crucial point to be improved among disabled swimmers.

dos Santos is with the University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Distrito Federal, Brazil. Bento and Rodacki are with the Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil. Payton is with the Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, Greater Manchester, United Kingdom.

dos Santos (kariniborges2@gmail.com) is corresponding author.
  • Alexander, M. (1983). Motion in fluids. In Animal mechanics. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific, 183233.

  • Barbosa, C.A., Araújo, L.T., Kanayama, T.O., de Souza, J.P.C., Lourenco, T.F., Leis, L.V., . . . Barroso, R. (2020). The classification in Para swimming: Analysis of a Paralympic champion’s withdraw case. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 16(1), 166172. doi:10.1177/1747954120953523

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barbosa, M.T., Fernandes, R.J., Morouco, P., & Vilas-Boas, J.P. (2008). Predicting the intra-cyclic variation of the velocity of the centre of mass from segmental velocities in butterfly stroke: A pilot study. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 7, 201209. PubMed ID: 24149450

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burkett, B., Mellifont, R., & Mason, B. (2010). The influence of swimming start components for selected Olympic and Paralympic swimmers. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 26(2), 134141. PubMed ID: 20498484 doi:10.1123/jab.26.2.134

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burkett, B., Payton, C., Van de Vliet, P., Jarvis, H., Daly, D., Mehrkuehler, C., . . . Hogarth, L. (2018). Performance characteristics of para swimmers: How effective is the swimming classification system? Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics, 29(2), 333346. PubMed ID: 29627092 doi:10.1016/j.pmr.2018.01.011

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chollet, D., Chalies, S., & Chatard, J. (2000). A new index of coordination for the crawl: Description and usefulness. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 21(1), 5459. PubMed ID: 10683100 doi:10.1055/s-2000-8855

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Daly, D.J., Djobova, S.K., Malone, L.A., Vanlandewijck, Y., & Steadward, R.D. (2003). Swimming speed patterns and stroking variables in the paralympic 100-m freestyle. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 20(3), 260278. doi:10.1123/apaq.20.3.260

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dingley, A.A., Pyne, D.B., & Burkett, B. (2014). Phases of the swim-start in Paralympic swimmers are influenced by severity and type of disability. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 30(5), 643648. PubMed ID: 25010477 doi:10.1123/jab.2013-0321

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dos Santos, B.K., Lara, J.P., & Rodacki, A.L. (2017). Reproducibility and repeatability of intracyclic velocity variation in front crawl swimming from manual and semi-automatic measurement. Human Movement, 18(3), 5559.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dos Santos, B.K., Payton, C., & Rodacki, A.L.F. (2019). Front crawl arm stroke trajectories of physically impaired swimmers: A preliminary study. Science & Sports, 34(4), 263266. doi:10.1016/j.scispo.2019.02.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feitosa, W.G., Correia, R.d.A., Barbosa, T.M., & Castro, F.A.d.S. (2019). Performance of disabled swimmers in protocols or tests and competitions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Biomechanics, 123. doi:10.1080/14763141.2019.1654535

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feitosa, W.G., Correia, R.d.A., Barbosa, T.M., & de Souza Castro, F.A. (2019). Kinematic, coordinative and efficiency parameters of physically impaired swimmers at maximum aerobic power speed. The Open Sports Sciences Journal, 12(1), 3543.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Figueiredo, P., Sanders, R., Gorski, T., Vilas-Boas, J., & Fernandes, R. (2013). Kinematic and electromyographic changes during 200 m front crawl at race pace. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 34(1), 4955.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Figueiredo, P., Silva, A., Sampaio, A., Vilas-Boas, J.P., & Fernandes, R.J. (2016). Front crawl sprint performance: A cluster analysis of biomechanics, energetics, coordinative, and anthropometric determinants in young swimmers. Motor Control, 20(3), 209221. PubMed ID: 26061270 doi:10.1123/mc.2014-0050

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Figueiredo, P., Willig, R., Alves, F., Vilas-Boas, J.P., & Fernandes, R.J. (2014). Biophysical characterization of a swimmer with a unilateral arm amputation: A case study. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 9(6), 10501053. PubMed ID: 24509528 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2013-0438

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fulton, S.K., Pyne, D.B., Hopkins, W.G., & Burkett, B. (2009). Variability and progression in competitive performance of Paralympic swimmers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(5), 535539. PubMed ID: 19219736 doi:10.1080/02640410802641418

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fulton, S.K., Pyne, D.B., Hopkins, W.G., & Burkett, B. (2010). Training characteristics of paralympic swimmers. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(2), 471478. PubMed ID: 20072051 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181c09a9e

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gehlsen, G.M., & Karpuk, J. (1992). Analysis of the NWAA swimming classification system. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 9(2), 141147. doi:10.1123/apaq.9.2.141

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gourgoulis, V., Antoniou, P., Aggeloussis, N., Mavridis, G., Kasimatis, P., Vezos, N., . . . Mavromatis, G. (2010). Kinematic characteristics of the stroke and orientation of the hand during front crawl resisted swimming. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(11), 11651173. PubMed ID: 20845217 doi:10.1080/02640414.2010.507251

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hogarth, L., Payton, C., Van de Vliet, P., Connick, M., & Burkett, B. (2018). A novel method to guide classification of para swimmers with limb deficiency. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 28(11), 23972406. PubMed ID: 29846980 doi:10.1111/sms.13229

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • IPC, International Paralympic Committee. (2015). World para swimming technical rules & regulations. Bonn, Germany: International Paralympic Committee.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, C.J., Sanders, R.H., & Payton, C.J. (2014). Changes in force production and stroke parameters of trained able-bodied and unilateral arm-amputee female swimmers during a 30 s tethered front-crawl swim. Journal of Sports Sciences, 32(18), 17041711. PubMed ID: 24842469 doi:10.1080/02640414.2014.915420

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maglischo, E.W. (2003). Swimming fastest. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  • Malone, L.A., Sanders, R.H., Schiltz, J.H., & Steadward, R.D. (2001). Effects of visual impairment on stroke parameters in Paralympic swimmers. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 33(12), 20982103. PubMed ID: 11740305 doi:10.1097/00005768-200112000-00019

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marques-Aleixo, I., Querido, A., Figueiredo, P., Vilas-Boas, J.P., Corredeira, R., Daly, D., & Fernandes, R.J. (2013). Intracyclic velocity variation and arm coordination assessment in swimmers with Down syndrome. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 30(1), 7084. PubMed ID: 23283027 doi:10.1123/apaq.30.1.70

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCabe, C.B., Psycharakis, S., & Sanders, R. (2011). Kinematic differences between front crawl sprint and distance swimmers at sprint pace. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(2), 115123. PubMed ID: 21120744 doi:10.1080/02640414.2010.523090

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCabe, C.B., & Sanders, R.H. (2012). Kinematic differences between front crawl sprint and distance swimmers at a distance pace. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(6), 601608. PubMed ID: 22315962 doi:10.1080/02640414.2012.660186

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCabe, C.B., Sanders, R.H., & Psycharakis, S.G. (2015). Upper limb kinematic differences between breathing and non-breathing conditions in front crawl sprint swimming. Journal of Biomechanics, 48(15), 39954001. PubMed ID: 26456423 doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.09.012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nikodelis, T., Kollias, I., & Hatzitaki, V. (2005). Bilateral inter-arm coordination in freestyle swimming: Effect of skill level and swimming speed. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(7), 737745. PubMed ID: 16195024 doi:10.1080/02640410400021955

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oh, Y.-T., Burkett, B., Osborough, C., Formosa, D., & Payton, C. (2013). London 2012 Paralympic swimming: Passive drag and the classification system. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47(13), 838843. PubMed ID: 23935028 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2013-092192

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Osborough, C.D., Payton, C.J., & Daly, D.J. (2010). Influence of swimming speed on inter-arm coordination in competitive unilateral arm amputee front crawl swimmers. Human Movement Science, 29(6), 921931. PubMed ID: 20800914 doi:10.1016/j.humov.2010.05.009

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Payton, C., Hogarth, L., Burkett, B., Van de Vliet, P., Lewis, S., & Oh, Y.-T. (2020). Active drag as a criterion for evidence-based classification in Para swimming. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 52(7), 1576. PubMed ID: 32032236 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000002281

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Payton, J.C., Bartlett, R.M., Baltzopoulos, V., & Coombs, R. (1999). Upper extremity kinematics and body roll during preferred-side breathing and breath-holding front crawl swimming. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17(9), 689696. PubMed ID: 10521000 doi:10.1080/026404199365551

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pelayo, P., Sidney, M., Moretto, P., Wille, F., & Chollet, D. (1999). Stroking parameters in top level swimmers with a disability. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 31(12), 18391843. PubMed ID: 10613437 doi:10.1097/00005768-199912000-00022

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Puce, L., Marinelli, L., Pallecchi, I., Mori, L., & Trompetto, C. (2019). Impact of the 2018 World Para Swimming classification revision on the race results in international Paralympic swimming events. German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research, 50(2), 113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Puel, F., Morlier, J., Avalos, M., Mesnard, M., Cid, M., & Hellard, P. (2012). 3D kinematic and dynamic analysis of the front crawl tumble turn in elite male swimmers. Journal of Biomechanics, 45(3), 510515. PubMed ID: 22176710 doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2011.11.043

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sanders, R.H., Thow, J., & Fairweather, M. (2011). Asymmetries in swimming: Where do they come from. Journal of Swimming Science, 18, 111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Santos, B.K., Lara, J.P., & Rodacki, A.L. (2017). Reproducibility, repeatability and accuracy analysis of three-dimensional kinematics of the front crawl stroke trajectories in impaired swimmers. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 17(1), 367370. doi:10.7752/jpes.2017.01054

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Satkunskiene, D., Schega, L., Kunze, K., Birzinyte, K., & Daly, D. (2005). Coordination in arm movements during crawl stroke in elite swimmers with a loco-motor disability. Human Movement Science, 24(1), 5465. PubMed ID: 15896864 doi:10.1016/j.humov.2005.04.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schleihauf, R.E., Higgins, J.R., Hinrichs, R., Luedtke, D., Maglischo, C., Maglischo, E., & Thayer, A. (1988). Propulsive techniques: Front crawl stroke, butterfly, backstroke, and breaststroke. Swimming Science, 18, 5359.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Silvatti, A.P., Cerveri, P., Telles, T., Dias, F.A., Baroni, G., & Barros, R.M. (2013). Quantitative underwater 3D motion analysis using submerged video cameras: Accuracy analysis and trajectory reconstruction. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 16(11), 12401248. PubMed ID: 22435960 doi:10.1080/10255842.2012.664637

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, J.B., Santi, G., & Mellalieu, S.D. (2016). Freestyle race pacing strategies (400 m) of elite able-bodied swimmers and swimmers with disability at major international championships. Journal of Sports Sciences, 34(20), 18.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tweedy, S.M., & Vanlandewijck, Y.C. (2011). International Paralympic Committee position stand—Background and scientific principles of classification in Paralympic sport. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45(4), 259269. PubMed ID: 19850575 doi:10.1136/bjsm.2009.065060

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, S.K., & Williams, T. (1999). Paralympic swimming performance, impairment, and the functional classification system. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 16(3), 251270. doi:10.1123/apaq.16.3.251

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 158 158 154
Full Text Views 130 130 12
PDF Downloads 116 116 16