The Effects of 3-Month Skill-Based and Plyometric Conditioning on Fitness Parameters in Junior Female Volleyball Players

in Pediatric Exercise Science
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $68.00

1 year subscription

USD  $90.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $129.00

2 year subscription

USD  $168.00

Purpose: This study compared the effects of skill-based and plyometric conditioning (both performed in addition to regular volleyball training twice a week for 12 wk) on fitness parameters in female junior volleyball players. Methods: The participants [n = 47; age: 16.6 (0.6) y; mass: 59.4 (8.1) kg; height: 175.1 (3.0) cm] were randomized into a plyometric (n = 13), a skill-based (n = 17), and a control (n = 17) groups. The variables included body height, body mass, calf girth, calf skinfold, corrected calf girth, countermovement jump, 20-m-sprint, medicine ball toss, and sit-and-reach test. Results: Two-way analysis of variance (time × group) effects for time were significant (P < .05) for all variables except body mass. Significant group × time interactions were observed for calf skinfold [η2 = .14; medium effect size (ES)], 20-m sprint (η2 = .09; small ES), countermovement jump (η2 = .29; large ES), medicine ball (η2 = .58; large ES), with greater gains (reduction of skinfold) for plyometric group, and sit-and-reach (η2 = .35; large ES), with greater gains in plyometric and skill-based groups. The magnitude-based inference indicated positive changes in 1) medicine ball toss and countermovement jump for all groups; 2) sit-and-reach for the plyometric and skill-based groups; and 3) 20-m sprint, calf girth, calf skinfold, and corrected calf girth for plyometric group only. Conclusion: Selected variables can be improved by adding 2 plyometric training sessions throughout the period of 12 weeks. Additional skill-based conditioning did not contribute to improvement in the studied variables compared with regular volleyball training.

Idrizovic is with the Faculty for Sport and Physical Education, University of Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro. Gjinovci is with the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, University of Prishtina, Prishtina, Kosovo. Sekulic, Uljevic, and Spasic are with the Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, Split, Croatia. João is with the Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development (CIDESD), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Villa Real, Portugal. Sattler is with the Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Address author correspondence to Damir Sekulic at dado@kifst.hr.
  • 1.

    Asadi A, Arazi H, Ramirez-Campillo R, Moran J, Izquierdo M. Influence of maturation stage on agility performance gains after plyometric training: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31(9):2609–17. PubMed doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001994

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Batterham AM, Hopkins WG. Making meaningful inferences about magnitudes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2006;1(1):50–7. PubMed doi:10.1123/ijspp.1.1.50

  • 3.

    Bompa TO. Periodization: Theory and Methodology of Training. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 1999.

  • 4.

    Bourdon PC, Cardinale M, Murray A, et al. Monitoring athlete training loads: consensus statement. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12(Suppl 2):2161–70. doi:10.1123/IJSPP.2017-0208

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Brown ME, Mayhew JL, Boleach LW. Effect of plyometric training on vertical jump performance in high school basketball players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1986;26(1):1–4. PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Carter AB, Kaminski TW, Douex AT Jr, Knight CA, Richards JG. Effects of high volume upper extremity plyometric training on throwing velocity and functional strength ratios of the shoulder rotators in collegiate baseball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21(1):208–15. PubMed doi:10.1519/00124278-200702000-00038

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Chelly MS, Hermassi S, Aouadi R, Shephard RJ. Effects of 8-week in-season plyometric training on upper and lower limb performance of elite adolescent handball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(5):1401–10. PubMed doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000279

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1988.

  • 9.

    de Villarreal ES, Gonzalez-Badillo JJ, Izquierdo M. Low and moderate plyometric training frequency produces greater jumping and sprinting gains compared with high frequency. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(3):715–25. PubMed doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318163eade

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Ferguson CJ. An effect size primer: a guide for clinicians and researchers. Prof Psychol Res Pr. 2009;40(5):532–8. doi:10.1037/a0015808

  • 11.

    Fernandez-Fernandez J, Saez de Villarreal E, Sanz-Rivas D, Moya M. The effects of 8-week plyometric training on physical performance in young tennis players. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2016;28(1):77–86. PubMed doi:10.1123/pes.2015-0019

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Ford HT Jr, Puckett JR, Drummond JP, Sawyer K, Gantt K, Fussell C. Effects of three combinations of plyometric and weight training programs on selected physical fitness test items. Percept Mot Skills. 1983;56(3):919–22. PubMed doi:10.2466/pms.1983.56.3.919

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Gabbett T, Georgieff B, Anderson S, Cotton B, Savovic D, Nicholson L. Changes in skill and physical fitness following training in talent-identified volleyball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20(1):29–35. PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Gabbett T, Jenkins D, Abernethy B. Game-based training for improving skill and physical fitness in team sport athletes. Int J Sports Sci Coach. 2009;4(2):273–83. doi:10.1260/174795409788549553

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Gabbett TJ. Do skill-based conditioning games offer a specific training stimulus for junior elite volleyball players? J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(2):509–17. PubMed doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181634550

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Garcia-Pinillos F, Ruiz-Ariza A, Moreno del Castillo R, Latorre-Roman PA. Impact of limited hamstring flexibility on vertical jump, kicking speed, sprint, and agility in young football players. J Sports Sci. 2015;33(12):1293–7. PubMed doi:10.1080/02640414.2015.1022577

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Gjinovci B, Idrizovic K, Uljevic O, Sekulic D. Plyometric training improves sprinting, jumping and throwing capacities of high level female volleyball players better than skill-based conditioning. J Sport Sci Med. 2017;16(4):527–35.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Hoffman J. Physiological Aspects of Sport Training and Performance. 2nd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2014.

  • 19.

    Hopkins WG. Spreadsheets for analysis of controlled trials with adjustment for a predictor [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2017 May 23].  Available from: http://sportsci.org/2006/wghcontrial.htm.

    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Impellizzeri FM, Rampinini E, Castagna C, Martino F, Fiorini S, Wisloff U. Effect of plyometric training on sand versus grass on muscle soreness and jumping and sprinting ability in soccer players. Br J Sports Med. 2008;42(1):42–6. PubMed doi:10.1136/bjsm.2007.038497

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Jeffreys M, De Ste Croix M, Lloyd RS, Oliver JL, Hughes J. The effect of varying plyometric volume on stretch-shortening cycle capability in collegiate male rugby players. J Strength Cond Res. 2017. doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001907

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Kubo K, Morimoto M, Komuro T, Yata H, Tsunoda N, Kanehisa H, Fukunaga T. Effects of plyometric and weight training on muscle-tendon complex and jump performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(10):1801–10. PubMed doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e31813e630a

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Lehnert M, Sigmund M, Lipinska P, et al. Training-induced changes in physical performance can be achieved without body mass reduction after eight week of strength and injury prevention oriented programme in volleyball female players. Biol Sport. 2017;2(2):205–13. PubMed doi:10.5114/biolsport.2017.65995

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Makaruk H, Winchester JB, Sadowski J, Czaplicki A, Sacewicz T. Effects of unilateral and bilateral plyometric training on power and jumping ability in women. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(12):3311–8. PubMed doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318215fa33

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Malina RM, Bouchard C, Bar-Or O. Growth, Maturation, and Physical Activity. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2004.

  • 26.

    Malousaris GG, Bergeles NK, Barzouka KG, Bayios IA, Nassis GP, Koskolou MD. Somatotype, size and body composition of competitive female volleyball players. J Sci Med Sport. 2008;11(3):337–44. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2006.11.008

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Markovic G, Mikulic P. Neuro-musculoskeletal and performance adaptations to lower-extremity plyometric training. Sports Med. 2010;40(10):859–95. PubMed doi:10.2165/11318370-000000000-00000

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Marques MC, Tillaar R, Vescovi JD, Gonzalez-Badillo JJ. Changes in strength and power performance in elite senior female professional volleyball players during the in-season: a case study. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(4):1147–55. PubMed doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31816a42d0

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Martín-Matillas M, Valadés D, Hernández-Hernández E, Olea-Serrano F, Sjöström M, Delgado-Fernández M, Ortega FB. Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league. J Sport Sci. 2014;32(2):137–48. doi:10.1080/02640414.2013.809472

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    McLaughlin EJ. A comparison between two training programs and their effects on fatigue rates in women. J Strength Cond Res. 2001;15(1):25–9. PubMed doi:10.1519/00124278-200102000-00005

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Moran J, Sandercock GRH, Ramirez-Campillo R, Todd O, Collison J, Parry DA. Maturation-related effect of low-dose plyometric training on performance in youth hockey players. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2017;29(2):194–202. PubMed doi:10.1123/pes.2016-0151

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Moran JJ, Sandercock GR, Ramirez-Campillo R, Meylan CM, Collison JA, Parry DA. Age-related variation in male youth athletes’ countermovement jump after plyometric training: a meta-analysis of controlled trials. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31(2):552–65. PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Ozbar N. Effects of plyometric training on explosive strength, speed and kicking speed in female soccer players. Anthropologist. 2015;19(2):333–9. doi:10.1080/09720073.2015.11891666

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Paradisis GP, Pappas PT, Theodorou AS, Zacharogiannis EG, Skordilis EK, Smirniotou AS. Effects of static and dynamic stretching on sprint and jump performance in boys and girls. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(1):154–60. PubMed doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318295d2fb

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Pereira A, Costa AM, Santos P, Figueiredo T, Joao PV. Training strategy of explosive strength in young female volleyball players. Medicina. 2015;51(2):126–31. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.medici.2015.03.004

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Pienaar C, Coetzee B. Changes in selected physical, motor performance and anthropometric components of university-level rugby players after one microcycle of a combined rugby conditioning and plyometric training program. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(2):398–415. PubMed doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825770ea

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Quiterio AL, Carnero EA, Silva AM, Bright BC, Sardinha LB. Anthropometric models to predict appendicular lean soft tissue in adolescent athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(4):828–36. PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818ffe4b

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Ramirez-Campillo R, Gallardo F, Henriquez-Olguin C, et al. Effect of vertical, horizontal, and combined plyometric training on explosive, balance, and endurance performance of young soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(7):1784–95. PubMed doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000827

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Ramirez-Campillo R, Meylan CM, Alvarez-Lepin C, et al. The effects of interday rest on adaptation to 6 weeks of plyometric training in young soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(4):972–9. PubMed doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000283

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Ramirez-Campillo R, Vergara-Pedreros M, Henriquez-Olguin C, et al. Effects of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance in male and female soccer players. J Sports Sci. 2016;34(8):687–93. PubMed doi:10.1080/02640414.2015.1068439

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Rubley MD, Haase AC, Holcomb WR, Girouard TJ, Tandy RD. The effect of plyometric training on power and kicking distance in female adolescent soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(1):129–34. PubMed doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b94a3d

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Sattler T, Sekulic D, Esco MR, Mahmutovic I, Hadzic V. Analysis of the association between isokinetic knee strength with offensive and defensive jumping capacity in high-level female volleyball athletes. J Sci Med Sport. 2015;18(5):613–8. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2014.08.002

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Sattler T, Sekulic D, Spasic M, Osmankac N, Vicente João P, Dervisevic E, Hadzic V. Isokinetic knee strength qualities as predictors of jumping performance in high-level volleyball athletes: multiple regression approach. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2016;56(1–2):60–9. PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Stojanovic E, Ristic V, McMaster DT, Milanovic Z. Effect of plyometric training on vertical jump performance in female athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2017;47(5):975–86. PubMed doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0634-6

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Sugiura Y, Sakuma K, Sakuraba K, Sato Y. Prevention of hamstring injuries in collegiate sprinters. Orthop J Sports Med. 2017;5(1):232596711668152. PubMed doi:10.1177/2325967116681524

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Swanik KA, Lephart SM, Swanik CB, Lephart SP, Stone DA, Fu FH. The effects of shoulder plyometric training on proprioception and selected muscle performance characteristics. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2002;11(6):579–86. PubMed doi:10.1067/mse.2002.127303

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Swanik KA, Thomas SJ, Struminger AH, Bliven KC, Kelly JD, Swanik CB. The effect of shoulder plyometric training on amortization time and upper-extremity kinematics. J Sport Rehabil. 2016;25(4):315–23. PubMed doi:10.1123/jsr.2015-0005

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Trajkovic N, Milanovic Z, Sporis G, Milic V, Stankovic R. The effects of 6 weeks of preseason skill-based conditioning on physical performance in male volleyball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(6):1475–80. PubMed doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318231a704

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Voelzke M, Stutzig N, Thorhauer HA, Granacher U. Promoting lower extremity strength in elite volleyball players: effects of two combined training methods. J Sci Med Sport. 2012;15(5):457–62. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2012.02.004

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Witvrouw E, Danneels L, Asselman P, D’Have T, Cambier D. Muscle flexibility as a risk factor for developing muscle injuries in male professional soccer players. A prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 2003;31(1):41–6. PubMed doi:10.1177/03635465030310011801

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 355 355 21
Full Text Views 15 15 1
PDF Downloads 7 7 0