This study examined the effectiveness of the reported coping responses utilized by 318 U.S. and 404 Korean athletes based on the Outcome model (i.e., considers perceived immediate and long-term outcomes) and the Goodness-of-Fit model (i.e., considers the fit between situational appraisal and coping strategies employed). Intercollegiate athletes provided information regarding frequency of psychological difficulties experienced during competition, their perceived controllability over such difficulties, and the reported coping strategies utilized to counter this particular stressor. Recursive path analyses revealed that both Active/Problem-Focused and Avoidance/Withdrawal coping were deemed immediately effective during competition. Active/Problem-Focused and Avoidance/Withdrawal coping strategies were, respectively, positively and negatively associated with all three long-term variables. Results partially supported the Goodness-of-Fit model among both Korean and U.S. athletes.
Mi-Sook Kim is with the Department of Kinesiology at San Francisco State University. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Joan L. Duda is with the School of Sport and Exercise Sciences at The University of Birmingham in the United Kingdom.