This study examined the effectiveness of an imagery training program in improving national softball players’ selective attention. A multiple-baseline design across individuals was used. There were four participants. One remained at baseline, while the other three spent 10 min a day practicing an audio-taped imagery program composed of 28 sessions. Measures of selective attention were collected via a baseball/softball batting specific version stemming from Nideffer’s (1976) Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style (TAIS). The results demonstrated that the imagery training program generally enhanced the ability of softball players to integrate external stimuli without being overloaded with them and to narrow attention. Results were discussed in relation to the usefulness of multiple-baseline designs for investigating individual differences among elite athletes. Practical pedagogical considerations for coaching are proposed.
Claire Calmels and Christelle Berthoumieux are with the Laboratory of Psychology and Sport, Department of Science and Sport at the National Institute of Sport and Physical Education, 11 Avenue du Tremblay, 75012 Paris, France. E.mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville is with the University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis and the National Institute of Sport and Physical Education in Paris, France.