Effects of Calisthenics and Pilates Exercises on Coordination and Proprioception in Adult Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

in Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Restricted access


To assess and compare the effects of 6 mo of Pilates and calisthenics on multijoint coordination and proprioception of the lower limbs at the 3rd and 6th mo of training.


Randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded, repeated-measures.


University research laboratory.

Participants and Intervention:

Healthy, sedentary, female participants age 25–50 y were recruited and randomly divided into 3 groups: a calisthenic exercise group (n = 34, mean age ± SD 40 ± 8 y, body-mass index [BMI] 31.04 ± 4.83 kg/m2), a Pilates exercise group (n = 32, mean age ± SD 37 ± 8 y, BMI 31.04 ± 4.83 kg/m2), and a control group (n = 41, mean age ± SD 41 ± 7 y, BMI 27.09 ± 4.77 kg/m2). The calisthenics and Pilates groups underwent related training programs for 6 mo, while the controls had no specific training.

Main Outcome Measures:

Coordination and proprioception of the lower extremities with concentric and eccentric performances in the closed kinetic chain assessed with the monitored rehab functional squat system at baseline and at the 3rd and 6th mo of training.


For the within-group comparison, coordinative concentric and eccentric deviation values were significantly decreased for both dominant and nondominant lower limbs at pretraining and at the 3rd and 6th mo posttraining in the calisthenics group (P < .05). In contrast, there was no improvement in the Pilates group throughout the training. However, for comparisons between groups, the baseline values of coordinative concentric and eccentric deviations were different in the calisthenics group than in Pilates and the controls (P < .05). There were no differences in the proprioception values of either visible or nonvisible movement in any group throughout the training (P > .05).


It seems that calisthenic exercises are more likely to improve coordination of the lower extremity after 3 and 6 mo of training than Pilates exercises. Calisthenic exercises may be useful for individuals who require improved coordination.

Ozer Kaya is with the School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Ahi Evran University, Kirsehir, Turkey. Duzgun is with the Dept of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, and Colakoglu, the School of Physical Education and Sport, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey. Baltaci is with the Dept of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey. Karacan is with the School of Physical Education and Sport, Konya Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.